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Gene Review

UL34  -  type 2 membrane protein; interacts with...

Human herpesvirus 1

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Disease relevance of UL34

  • Identification of an essential domain in the herpes simplex virus 1 UL34 protein that is necessary and sufficient to interact with UL31 protein [1].
  • Two conserved herpes simplex virus 1 proteins, UL31 and UL34, form a complex at the inner nuclear membrane which governs primary envelopment and nuclear egress of the herpesvirus nucleocapsids [2].
  • Furthermore, the US3 kinase affects the morphology of primary envelopment such that in its absence, UL34 protein-containing enveloped virions accumulate within membrane-bound vesicles [3].
  • Using a lamin A-green fluorescent protein fusion, we provide direct evidence that the nuclear lamina is disrupted during HSV-1 infection and that the UL31 and UL34 proteins are required for this [4].
  • The proteins encoded by the UL34 and UL31 genes of herpes simplex virus are conserved among herpesviruses [5].

High impact information on UL34

  • Here, we started to map binding domains within the UL34/UL31 proteins of alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses and to locate other functional properties [5].
  • These results indicate that UL13 phosphorylates Us3 in infected cells and regulates UL34 and UL31 localization, either by phosphorylating Us3 or by a Us3-independent mechanism [6].
  • Here we show that the CR1 of all tested UL31 proteins contains the UL34 binding site, and chimeric proteins carrying the subfamily-specific CR1 rescued the ability to cross-complement in the PCA [5].
  • The data suggest a model in which kinases that normally disassemble the nuclear lamina during apoptosis are recruited to the nuclear membrane through functions requiring UL31 and UL34 [7].
  • (iii) The phenotype of DeltaUL13 resembles that of a recombinant virus lacking the Us3 gene (DeltaUs3) with respect to localization of the viral envelopment factors UL34 and UL31, whose localization has been shown to be regulated by Us3 [6].

Biological context of UL34


Anatomical context of UL34

  • Hep2 cells infected with v3480 contained the UL34 protein in the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the nuclear membrane, and this was noted to be similar to the appearance of cells infected with a UL31 null virus [1].
  • A UL34-expressing cell line restored v3480 growth and plaque formation [1].
  • Similar to a UL34 null virus, v3480 failed to replicate on Vero cells and grew to a limited extent on rabbit skin cells [1].

Associations of UL34 with chemical compounds

  • In the work described here, mapping studies using glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays indicated that amino acids 137 to 181 of the UL34 protein are sufficient to mediate an interaction with the UL31 protein [1].


  1. Identification of an essential domain in the herpes simplex virus 1 UL34 protein that is necessary and sufficient to interact with UL31 protein. Liang, L., Baines, J.D. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional domains of murine cytomegalovirus nuclear egress protein M53/p38. Lötzerich, M., Ruzsics, Z., Koszinowski, U.H. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 primary envelopment: UL34 protein modification and the US3-UL34 catalytic relationship. Ryckman, B.J., Roller, R.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and functional evaluation of cellular and viral factors involved in the alteration of nuclear architecture during herpes simplex virus 1 infection. Simpson-Holley, M., Colgrove, R.C., Nalepa, G., Harper, J.W., Knipe, D.M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Common and Specific Properties of Herpesvirus UL34/UL31 Protein Family Members Revealed by Protein Complementation Assay. Schnee, M., Ruzsics, Z., Bubeck, A., Koszinowski, U.H. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Herpes simplex virus 1-encoded protein kinase UL13 phosphorylates viral Us3 protein kinase and regulates nuclear localization of viral envelopment factors UL34 and UL31. Kato, A., Yamamoto, M., Ohno, T., Tanaka, M., Sata, T., Nishiyama, Y., Kawaguchi, Y. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection induces activation and recruitment of protein kinase C to the nuclear membrane and increased phosphorylation of lamin B. Park, R., Baines, J.D. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of proteins phosphorylated directly by the Us3 protein kinase encoded by herpes simplex virus 1. Kato, A., Yamamoto, M., Ohno, T., Kodaira, H., Nishiyama, Y., Kawaguchi, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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