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Gene Review

slp1  -  sloppy paired 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG16738, Dmel\CG16738, Dmslp1, FD6, Fork head domain transcription factor slp1, ...
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High impact information on slp1

  • The two genes appear to share an enhancer element situated upstream of slp1 that acts on both the proximal slp1 promoter and the distal slp2 promoter [1].
  • The phenotypes of embryos containing various combinations of functional slp genes suggest that for early slp function, until gastrulation, only slp1 is required [2].
  • By contrast, the specific combination of Runt + Ftz is sufficient for slp1 repression in all blastoderm nuclei [3].
  • We identified the intermediate repressor activity as being encoded by sloppy paired 1 and 2 and showed that bona fide activation is dramatically enhanced by Wingless signaling [4].
  • Mesodermal Slp is then sufficient to abrogate the induction of bagpipe by Dpp/Tinman, which explains the periodic arrangement of trunk visceral mesoderm primordia in wild type embryos [5].

Biological context of slp1

  • The Slp1 protein contains a protein motif (EH1) which mediates binding to the transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro) [6].
  • In contrast, misexpression of either slp1 or slp2 causes downregulation of glial cell-specific genes and alters the fate of glial and neuronal cells [7].

Anatomical context of slp1

  • The sloppy-paired (slp) locus contains two genes (slp1 and slp2) that are expressed in overlapping striped patterns in the presumptive thorax and abdomen [6].
  • Based upon our genetic and molecular analysis, we conclude that Wg signaling induces striped expression of Slp in the mesoderm [5].
  • Here, we show that slp1/2 also have roles in regulating glial cell fates [7].

Other interactions of slp1

  • In this paper, we show that sloppy paired 1 and sloppy paired 2 function as the downstream targets of the Wg signaling to generate the NB4-2 cell [8].
  • Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo [6].
  • However, lilli is not required for all targets that are activated by Runt and appears to have no role in activation of sloppy paired (slp1) [9].
  • Here we show that abdominal Hox proteins work directly with two different segmentation proteins, Sloppy paired and Engrailed, to repress the Hox target gene Distalless in anterior and posterior compartments, respectively [10].
  • Using slp1/2 loss-of-function mutants, we show an increase in glial cell markers, glial cells missing (gcm) and reversed polarity [7].


  1. The Drosophila sloppy paired locus encodes two proteins involved in segmentation that show homology to mammalian transcription factors. Grossniklaus, U., Pearson, R.K., Gehring, W.J. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional redundancy: the respective roles of the two sloppy paired genes in Drosophila segmentation. Cadigan, K.M., Grossniklaus, U., Gehring, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Swantek, D., Gergen, J.P. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Requirements for transcriptional repression and activation by Engrailed in Drosophila embryos. Alexandre, C., Vincent, J.P. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Wingless effects mesoderm patterning and ectoderm segmentation events via induction of its downstream target sloppy paired. Lee, H.H., Frasch, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Groucho-dependent repression by sloppy-paired 1 differentially positions anterior pair-rule stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Andrioli, L.P., Oberstein, A.L., Corado, M.S., Yu, D., Small, S. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Sloppy paired 1/2 regulate glial cell fates by inhibiting Gcm Function. Mondal, S., Ivanchuk, S.M., Rutka, J.T., Boulianne, G.L. Glia (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Sloppy paired acts as the downstream target of wingless in the Drosophila CNS and interaction between sloppy paired and gooseberry inhibits sloppy paired during neurogenesis. Bhat, K.M., van Beers, E.H., Bhat, P. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The HMG-box protein Lilliputian is required for Runt-dependent activation of the pair-rule gene fushi-tarazu. Vanderzwan-Butler, C.J., Prazak, L.M., Gergen, J.P. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Direct integration of Hox and segmentation gene inputs during Drosophila development. Gebelein, B., McKay, D.J., Mann, R.S. Nature (2004) [Pubmed]
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