The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

gcm  -  glial cells missing

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12245, Dmel\CG12245, GCM, GCM1, GCMa, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of gcm


High impact information on gcm

  • We have identified a gene, glial cells missing (gcm), that encodes a novel nuclear protein expressed transiently in early glial cells [3].
  • glial cells missing and gcm2 cell autonomously regulate both glial and neuronal development in the visual system of Drosophila [4].
  • Our findings further suggest that gcm genes regulate neurogenesis through collaboration with the Hedgehog-signaling pathway [4].
  • We show that the transcriptional regulator Dachshund acts downstream of gcm genes and is required to make lamina precursor cells and lamina neurons competent for neuronal differentiation through regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels [4].
  • We demonstrate that Gcm and Gcm2 are expressed in both glial and neuronal precursors within the optic lobe [4].

Biological context of gcm


Anatomical context of gcm

  • Removal of gcm and gcm2 function shows that the two genes act redundantly and are required for the formation of a subset of glial cells [4].
  • Resolving embryonic blood cell fate choice in Drosophila: interplay of GCM and RUNX factors [5].
  • Moreover, we show that glide/gcm activates a new tendon cell gene independently of stripe [8].
  • Here we show that glide/gcm is necessary to induce glial differentiation in the peripheral nervous system [9].
  • In addition, gcm has a role in the differentiation of the plasmatocyte/macrophage lineage of hemocytes [10].

Associations of gcm with chemical compounds

  • In the DNA-binding region of this GCM protein, there is a cysteine-rich region with which divalent metal ions such as Zn(2+) must bind and other proteins belonging to the GCM family have a corresponding region [11].

Physical interactions of gcm

  • Eleven such GCM-binding sequences are found in the 5' upstream region of the repo gene, whose expression in early glial cells is dependent on gcm [6].

Regulatory relationships of gcm

  • Notably, we demonstrate that GCM/GCM2 play a key role in controlling the size of the crystal cell population by inhibiting lz activation and maintenance [5].
  • gcm2 promotes glial cell differentiation and is required with glial cells missing for macrophage development in Drosophila [10].
  • In Drosophila lateral glial cell development is initiated by the transcription factor encoded by glial cells missing. glial cells missing activates downstream transcription factors such as repo and pointed which subsequently control terminal glial differentiation [12].
  • During subsequent stages of embryonic development gcm and pointed appear to activate loco transcription synergistically [12].
  • Within the dbd lineage, Notch is specifically activated in one of the daughter cells and is required for gcm expression and a glial fate [7].

Other interactions of gcm

  • We show that, surprisingly, gcm is initially expressed in all prohemocytes but is rapidly downregulated in the anterior-most row of prohemocytes, which then initiates lz expression [5].
  • This suggests that the GCM protein is a transcriptional regulator directly controlling repo [6].
  • CycE, which is asymmetrically expressed after the first division of NB6-4t, functions upstream of pros and gcm to specify the neuronal sublineage [13].
  • The expression of loco is initially dependent on gcm [12].
  • Huckebein-mediated autoregulation of Glide/Gcm triggers glia specification [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gcm


  1. Impacts of a new transcription factor family: mammalian GCM proteins in health and disease. Hashemolhosseini, S., Wegner, M. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Asymmetric cell division of thoracic neuroblast 6-4 to bifurcate glial and neuronal lineage in Drosophila. Akiyama-Oda, Y., Hosoya, T., Hotta, Y. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. glial cells missing: a binary switch between neuronal and glial determination in Drosophila. Hosoya, T., Takizawa, K., Nitta, K., Hotta, Y. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. glial cells missing and gcm2 cell autonomously regulate both glial and neuronal development in the visual system of Drosophila. Chotard, C., Leung, W., Salecker, I. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Resolving embryonic blood cell fate choice in Drosophila: interplay of GCM and RUNX factors. Bataillé, L., Augé, B., Ferjoux, G., Haenlin, M., Waltzer, L. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The gcm-motif: a novel DNA-binding motif conserved in Drosophila and mammals. Akiyama, Y., Hosoya, T., Poole, A.M., Hotta, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Context-dependent utilization of Notch activity in Drosophila glial determination. Umesono, Y., Hiromi, Y., Hotta, Y. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Terminal tendon cell differentiation requires the glide/gcm complex. Soustelle, L., Jacques, C., Altenhein, B., Technau, G.M., Volk, T., Giangrande, A. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Some fly sensory organs are gliogenic and require glide/gcm in a precursor that divides symmetrically and produces glial cells. Van De Bor, V., Walther, R., Giangrande, A. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. gcm2 promotes glial cell differentiation and is required with glial cells missing for macrophage development in Drosophila. Alfonso, T.B., Jones, B.W. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. NMR and ICP spectroscopic analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Drosophila GCM protein reveals a novel Zn2+ -binding motif. Shimizu, M., Hiroaki, H., Kohda, D., Hosoya, T., Akiyama-Oda, Y., Hotta, Y., Morita, E.H., Morikawa, K. Protein Eng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. gcm and pointed synergistically control glial transcription of the Drosophila gene loco. Granderath, S., Bunse, I., Klämbt, C. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. A critical role for cyclin E in cell fate determination in the central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster. Berger, C., Pallavi, S.K., Prasad, M., Shashidhara, L.S., Technau, G.M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Huckebein-mediated autoregulation of Glide/Gcm triggers glia specification. De Iaco, R., Soustelle, L., Kammerer, M., Sorrentino, S., Jacques, C., Giangrande, A. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Gliogenesis in Drosophila: genome-wide analysis of downstream genes of glial cells missing in the embryonic nervous system. Egger, B., Leemans, R., Loop, T., Kammermeier, L., Fan, Y., Radimerski, T., Strahm, M.C., Certa, U., Reichert, H. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression profiling of glial genes during Drosophila embryogenesis. Altenhein, B., Becker, A., Busold, C., Beckmann, B., Hoheisel, J.D., Technau, G.M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities