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Gene Review

Acp1  -  Adult cuticle protein 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG7216, CG7216-PA, Dacp-1, Dmel\CG7216, acp1, ...
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High impact information on Acp1

  • The function of the frizzled (fz) locus is required for the development of a parallel array of bristles and hairs on the adult cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster [1].
  • Mutant alleles of the Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene affect embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern formation, larval viability, and adult cuticle formation from the imaginal disks [2].
  • A 12-kb genomic fragment containing this transcript along with 2.8 kb of 5'-flanking sequence and 4.6 kb of 3'-flanking sequence is sufficient for the wild-type expression of the larval and adult cuticle phenotypes in germ-line transformants [3].
  • This putative y gene transcript is present at high levels in pupae when melanization of the adult cuticle occurs, but its steady-state levels change dramatically during development, being highest in late embryos prior to hatching [4].
  • Many of the same genes needed for proper eye and limb development in vertebrates, such as hairy, hedgehog, patched and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A, are responsible for patterning Drosophila imaginal discs, the tissues that will give rise to the adult cuticle structures [5].

Biological context of Acp1


Anatomical context of Acp1


Associations of Acp1 with chemical compounds

  • Since the Met mutation also confers resistance to methoprene-induced abnormalities in adult cuticle formation, the autonomy of Met expression could be evaluated in flies mosiac for this mutation [12].
  • In vitro melanization studies with various pigmentation mutants that are associated with critical enzymatic steps in Drosophila catecholamine metabolism are consistent with their proposed function and suggest a central role of N-beta-alanyldopamine in adult cuticle pigmentation [13].

Other interactions of Acp1

  • Rg-pbx is a dominant gain-of-function mutation which shows a transformation of posterior haltere to wing in the adult cuticle [14].
  • Although the adult cuticle lacks proper pigmentation as expected in flies with low DDC activity (less than or equal to 5%), the bristles unexpectedly have wild-type black pigmentation [15].
  • The frizzled (fz) gene of Drosophila is required for planar polarity establishment in the adult cuticle, acting both cell autonomously and nonautonomously [16].
  • Dhr38 alleles cause localized fragility and rupturing of the adult cuticle, demonstrating that Dhr38 plays an important role in late stages of epidermal metamorphosis [17].
  • Transheterozygotes of en1 and EMS-induced, cytologically normal enlethal alleles have almost normal adult cuticle phenotypes and also exhibit normal patterns of engrailed protein expression in all of the thoracic imaginal discs [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acp1

  • Cautery of any of the presumptive imaginal regions can lead to defects in the adult cuticle, though the majority of adults which hatch are morphologically normal [19].


  1. Directional non-cell autonomy and the transmission of polarity information by the frizzled gene of Drosophila. Vinson, C.R., Adler, P.N. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification in transgenic animals of the Drosophila decapentaplegic sequences required for embryonic dorsal pattern formation. Hoffmann, F.M., Goodman, W. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular analysis of the yellow locus of Drosophila. Chia, W., Howes, G., Martin, M., Meng, Y.B., Moses, K., Tsubota, S. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular analysis of the yellow gene (y) region of Drosophila melanogaster. Biessmann, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. A role for ultraspiracle, the Drosophila RXR, in morphogenetic furrow movement and photoreceptor cluster formation. Zelhof, A.C., Ghbeish, N., Tsai, C., Evans, R.M., McKeown, M. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Asymmetric localization of frizzled and the establishment of cell polarity in the Drosophila wing. Strutt, D.I. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Ectopic expression of homeotic genes caused by the elimination of the Polycomb gene in Drosophila imaginal epidermis. Busturia, A., Morata, G. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. The molecular through ecological genetics of abnormal abdomen in Drosophila mercatorum. VI. The non-neutrality of the Y chromosome rDNA polymorphism. Hollocher, H., Templeton, A.R. Genetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of a specialized extracellular matrix component in Drosophila imaginal discs. Brower, D.L., Piovant, M., Salatino, R., Brailey, J., Hendrix, M.J. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Synthesis of the major adult cuticle proteins of Drosophila melanogaster during hypoderm differentiation. Roter, A.H., Spofford, J.B., Swift, H. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Transformation of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, with a piggyBac vector marked with polyubiquitin-regulated GFP. Handler, A.M., Harrell, R.A. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. A Drosophila melanogaster mutant resistant to a chemical analog of juvenile hormone. Wilson, T.G., Fabian, J. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Catecholamine metabolism and in vitro induction of premature cuticle melanization in wild type and pigmentation mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. Walter, M.F., Zeineh, L.L., Black, B.C., McIvor, W.E., Wright, T.R., Biessmann, H. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. A development genetic analysis of the gene regulator of postbithorax in Drosophila melanogaster. Bender, M., Turner, F.R., Kaufman, T.C. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. DdcDE1, a mutant differentially affecting both stage and tissue specific expression of dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila. Bishop, C.P., Wright, T.R. Genetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Nonautonomous planar polarity patterning in Drosophila: dishevelled-independent functions of frizzled. Strutt, H., Strutt, D. Dev. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Drosophila hormone receptor 38 functions in metamorphosis: a role in adult cuticle formation. Kozlova, T., Pokholkova, G.V., Tzertzinis, G., Sutherland, J.D., Zhimulev, I.F., Kafatos, F.C. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Allelic interactions at the engrailed locus of Drosophila: engrailed protein expression in imaginal discs. Condie, J.M., Brower, D.L. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Adult deficiencies and duplications of head and thoracic structures resulting from microcautery of blastoderm stage Drosophila embryos. Bownes, M. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1975) [Pubmed]
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