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Gene Review

HOXD13  -  homeobox D13

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on HOXD13

  • In addition to the regional restriction on Bmp4 induction, Shh can only induce Hoxd-13 in the mesoderm of the hindgut [1].
  • We tested the role of Hoxd-13, normally restricted in its mesodermal expression to the most posterior region of the hindgut (cloaca), in controlling adjacent endodermal differentiation [1].
  • When virally mediated Hoxd-13 is misexpressed in the primitive midgut mesoderm, there is a transformation of the endoderm to the morphology and mucin content of the hindgut [1].
  • Here we report the misexpression phenotype for Hoxd-13 and compare it to the misexpression phenotype of Hoxd-11 [2].
  • Mutations in an alanine repeat region in the N-terminus of Hoxd-13 have recently been implicated in human synpolydactyly (Muragaki, Y., Mundlos, S., Upton, J. and Olsen, B. R. (1996) Science 272, 548-551) [2].

Biological context of HOXD13

  • The changes in bone lengths caused by Hoxd-13 misexpression are late phenotypes that first become apparent during the growth phase of the bones [2].
  • Prior to inducing extra digit formation, the cartilaginous grafts induced Hoxd-12 and Hoxd-13 gene expression in adjacent competent mesenchymal tissue [3].
  • We used the fatemaps to investigate the relationship between cell lineage and elaboration of Hoxd-13 and Fgf-4 domains [4].

Anatomical context of HOXD13

  • In contrast, SHH is not required for the induction of Hoxd11 or Hoxd13 expression, since expression of both these genes was detected in the mutant limb buds [5].
  • Hoxd-13 misexpression in the hindlimb results in a shortening of the long bones, including the femur, the tibia, the fibula and the tarsometatarsals [2].
  • We found that expression of Msx-1, Hoxd-13, and Bmp-2 in posterior limb bud mesenchyme is dependent on a local signal from the apical ectodermal ridge [6].
  • On the other hand, no ectopic Shh and Hoxd13 expression was detected by grafting an FGF-4 bead into the forelimb bud [7].

Other interactions of HOXD13

  • The anteriormost digit is characterized by being hoxd13-positive and hoxd12 (hoxd11)-negative in the chick and mouse [8].


  1. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling during the regionalization of the chick gut. Roberts, D.J., Smith, D.M., Goff, D.J., Tabin, C.J. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of Hoxd-13 and Hoxd-11 misexpression in chick limb buds reveals that Hox genes affect both bone condensation and growth. Goff, D.J., Tabin, C.J. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Early chick limb cartilaginous elements possess polarizing activity and express hedgehog-related morphogenetic factors. Koyama, E., Leatherman, J.L., Noji, S., Pacifici, M. Dev. Dyn. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell fate in the chick limb bud and relationship to gene expression. Vargesson, N., Clarke, J.D., Vincent, K., Coles, C., Wolpert, L., Tickle, C. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The chick limbless mutation causes abnormalities in limb bud dorsal-ventral patterning: implications for the mechanism of apical ridge formation. Grieshammer, U., Minowada, G., Pisenti, J.M., Abbott, U.K., Martin, G.R. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of FGF on gene expression in chick limb bud cells in vivo and in vitro. Vogel, A., Roberts-Clarke, D., Niswander, L. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential response of Shh expression between chick forelimb and hindlimb buds by FGF-4. Wada, N., Nohno, T. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of Xenopus digits and regenerated limbs of the froglet. Satoh, A., Endo, T., Abe, M., Yakushiji, N., Ohgo, S., Tamura, K., Ide, H. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
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