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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Cloaca

  • In the second case a small omphalocele associated with exstrophy of the cloaca was not accompanied by an abnormal AFP increase [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Impaired distribution of RAR-alpha in the hindgut-tailgut on E11.5 resulted in the incomplete partitioning of the cloaca and the rectourethral or rectocloacal fistula on E14 [2].
  • Salmonella arizonae and Salmonella serogroups B, C2, and E1 were isolated from the cloaca, colon contents, pond water, and nest soil, and were excreted by hatchlings produced from eggs removed from the soil nests [3].

High impact information on Cloaca

  • We demonstrate a requirement for pax2.1 in multiple aspects of pronephric development including tubule and duct epithelial differentiation and cloaca morphogenesis [4].
  • We tested the role of Hoxd-13, normally restricted in its mesodermal expression to the most posterior region of the hindgut (cloaca), in controlling adjacent endodermal differentiation [5].
  • Shh null-mutant mice display persistent cloaca [6].
  • Venous continuity was achieved by donor suprahepatic inferior vena cava to recipient hepatic cloaca and direct end-to-end portal anastomosis [7].
  • The TPN everts the hemipene through the cloaca and the RPM retracts it [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cloaca

  • Failure of fusion of the URS with cloacal membrane is the immediate reason for rectourethral fistula or common cloaca in ETU-treated rats [9].

Biological context of Cloaca

  • These studies revealed that 12 hours following initial maternal ethanol exposure, embryos have excessive amounts of cell death localized in the region of the developing mesonephric duct just proximal to the cloaca [10].

Anatomical context of Cloaca


Associations of Cloaca with chemical compounds

  • Urine, containing uric acid, is transported from the cloaca into the caeca when these are filled [16].
  • Serotonin-storing cells are distributed in all tissues derived from cloaca [17].
  • Instead, birds displayed maximal intake rate at intermediate sugar concentration, and mouth to cloaca mean retention times increased with hexose concentration [18].
  • The absorbed urea was excreted into ureteral urine that refluxed from the cloaca into the colon and ceca where urea was degraded to ammonia [19].
  • The sodefrin and silefrin precursor mRNA levels in the abdominal gland of the cloaca are elevated by prolactin and androgen [20].

Gene context of Cloaca

  • Innervation of NADPH diaphorase-containing neurons correlated with acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuropeptides in the pigeon cloaca [21].
  • Nerve fibres immunoreactive for calcitonin-gene related peptide, galanin, methionine-enkephalin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were found sparsely in the cloaca [21].
  • In the 4-day-old larva, a small subset of specialized sensory cells on the surface and cells in deeper structures including the gill arches, fin, and cloaca express the BDNF gene at high levels in a promoter-specific fashion [22].
  • These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin [23].
  • The distribution pattern of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-stained neurons and fibres in the cloaca was similar to that of NADPH-d. Double staining for NADPH-d and AChE showed colocalisation of the 2 enzymes in many neurons of the cloaca [21].


  1. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein elevation with fetal omphalocele and a possible mechanism for its occurrence. King, C.R., Prescott, G.H. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Impaired distribution of retinoic acid receptors in the hindgut-tailgut region of murine embryos with anorectal malformations. Bitoh, Y., Shimotake, T., Kubota, Y., Kimura, O., Iwai, N. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Acquisition of Salmonella flora by turtle hatchlings on commercial turtle farms. Izadjoo, M.J., Pantoja, C.O., Siebeling, R.J. Can. J. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Zebrafish no isthmus reveals a role for pax2.1 in tubule differentiation and patterning events in the pronephric primordia. Majumdar, A., Lun, K., Brand, M., Drummond, I.A. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal signaling during the regionalization of the chick gut. Roberts, D.J., Smith, D.M., Goff, D.J., Tabin, C.J. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling. Mo, R., Kim, J.H., Zhang, J., Chiang, C., Hui, C.C., Kim, P.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Evaluation, operative management, and outcome after liver transplantation in children with biliary atresia and situs inversus. Farmer, D.G., Shaked, A., Olthoff, K.M., Imagawa, D.K., Millis, J.M., Busuttil, R.W. Ann. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Seasonal plasticity in the copulatory neuromuscular system of green anole lizards: a role for testosterone in muscle but not motoneuron morphology. Holmes, M.M., Wade, J. J. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Normal and abnormal embryonic development of the anorectum in rats. Bai, Y., Chen, H., Yuan, Z.W., Wang, W. J. Pediatr. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Pathogenesis of ethanol-induced hydronephrosis and hydroureter as demonstrated following in vivo exposure of mouse embryos. Gage, J.C., Sulik, K.K. Teratology (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Posterior extension of the chick nephric (Wolffian) duct: the role of fibronectin and NCAM polysialic acid. Bellairs, R., Lear, P., Yamada, K.M., Rutishauser, U., Lash, J.W. Dev. Dyn. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemoprophylaxis of cryptosporidiosis in chickens, using halofuginone, salinomycin, lasalocid, or monensin. Lindsay, D.S., Blagburn, B.L., Sundermann, C.A., Ernest, J.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Sexual differentiation of the urogenital tract in the chicken embryo: autoradiographic localization of sex-steroid target cells during development. Gasc, J.M., Stumpf, W.E. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Migration of enteric neural crest cells in relation to growth of the gut in avian embryos. Newgreen, D.F., Southwell, B., Hartley, L., Allan, I.J. Acta anatomica. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Progesterone receptor is constitutively expressed in chicken intestinal mesothelium and smooth muscle. Salomaa, S., Pekki, A., Sannisto, T., Ylikomi, T., Tuohimaa, P. J. Steroid Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. On caecal synthesis and absorption of amino acids and their importance for nitrogen recycling in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Mortensen, A., Tindall, A. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Endocrine cells in median raphe cysts of the penis. Fetissof, F., Lorette, G., Dubois, M.P., Philippe, A., Tharanne, M.J., Jobard, P. Pathol. Res. Pract. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Test, rejection, and reformulation of a chemical reactor-based model of gut function in a fruit-eating bird. Levey, D.J., Martínez del Rio, C. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Significant role of the nitrogen recycling system through the ceca occurs in protein-depleted chickens. Karasawa, Y. J. Exp. Zool. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Amphibian pheromones and endocrine control of their secretion. Kikuyama, S., Nakada, T., Toyoda, F., Iwata, T., Yamamoto, K., Conlon, J.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Innervation of NADPH diaphorase-containing neurons correlated with acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuropeptides in the pigeon cloaca. Atoji, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Suzuki, Y. J. Anat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB tyrosine kinase receptor gene expression in zebrafish embryo and larva. Lum, T., Huynh, G., Heinrich, G. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies. Dolfi, A., Lupetti, M., Bianchi, F., Michelucci, S. J. Anat. (1988) [Pubmed]
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