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Gene Review

SRRT  -  serrate, RNA effector molecule

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARS2, ASR2, Arsenite-resistance protein 2, Asr2, Serrate RNA effector molecule homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of ARS2

  • Asr1, Asr2 and Asr3 are three homologous clones isolated from tomato whose expression is believed to be regulated by abscisic acid (ABA); the corresponding genes thus participate in physiological and developmental processes such as responses of leaf and root to water stress, and fruit ripening [1].

High impact information on ARS2

  • Previously, expression cloning for cDNAs whose overexpression confers arsenite-resistance in Chinese hamster V79 cells identified two genes: fau and a novel gene, asr2 [2].
  • Genomic nucleotide sequence of tomato Asr2, a second member of the stress/ripening-induced Asr1 gene family [3].
  • Two cDNAs, asr1 and asr2, which confer arsenite resistance to arsenite-hypersensitive As/S5 cells as well as to wild-type cells, were isolated. asr1 shows almost complete homology with the rat fau gene, a tumor suppressor gene which contains a ubiquitin-like region fused to S30 ribosomal protein [4].
  • Asr2, a recently reported member of this family, is believed to be regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), stress and ripening [5].
  • Analysis of the C. glutamicum genome revealed the presence of two complete ars operons (ars1 and ars2) comprising the typical three-gene structure arsRBC, with an extra arsC1 located downstream from arsC1 (ars1 operon), and two orphan genes (arsB3 and arsC4) [6].

Associations of ARS2 with chemical compounds

  • We have previously reported that an active substance of ARS-2 purified from the culture medium of Chlorella vulgaris was a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,100 amu and that this glycoprotein expressed antitumor activity, with the protein moiety in ARS-2 being necessary for this antitumor activity [7].


  1. Asr genes belong to a gene family comprising at least three closely linked loci on chromosome 4 in tomato. Rossi, M., Lijavetzky, D., Bernacchi, D., Hopp, H.E., Iusem, N. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. fau and its ubiquitin-like domain (FUBI) transforms human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells to anchorage-independence. Rossman, T.G., Visalli, M.A., Komissarova, E.V. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Genomic nucleotide sequence of tomato Asr2, a second member of the stress/ripening-induced Asr1 gene family. Amitai-Zeigerson, H., Scolnik, P.A., Bar-Zvi, D. Plant Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression cloning for arsenite-resistance resulted in isolation of tumor-suppressor fau cDNA: possible involvement of the ubiquitin system in arsenic carcinogenesis. Rossman, T.G., Wang, Z. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene promoter belonging to the Asr gene family from tomato in homologous and heterologous systems. Rossi, M., Carrari, F., Cabrera-Ponce, J.L., Vázquez-Rovere, C., Herrera-Estrella, L., Gudesblat, G., Iusem, N.D. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model bacterium for the bioremediation of arsenic. Mateos, L.M., Ordo??ez, E., Letek, M., Gil, J.A. Int. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Toll-like receptor 2 is at least partly involved in the antitumor activity of glycoprotein from Chlorella vulgaris. Hasegawa, T., Matsuguchi, T., Noda, K., Tanaka, K., Kumamoto, S., Shoyama, Y., Yoshikai, Y. Int. Immunopharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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