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Gene Review

FLS2  -  LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein...

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2, MPL12.13, MPL12.8, MPL12_13
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Disease relevance of FLS2

  • Prior immunization was not required for FLS2-dependent restriction of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato [1].

High impact information on FLS2

  • Stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis perceive bacterial surface molecules, which requires the FLS2 receptor, production of nitric oxide, and the guard-cell-specific OST1 kinase [2].
  • Ligand-induced endocytosis of the pattern recognition receptor FLS2 in Arabidopsis [3].
  • A variant FLS2 mutated in Thr 867, a potential phosphorylation site, binds flg22 normally, but is impaired in flg22 responses and FLS2 endocytosis [3].
  • FLS2 internalization depends on cytoskeleton and proteasome functions, and receptor activation [3].
  • Here, we demonstrate that a functional fusion of FLS2 to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) resides in cell membranes of most tissues [3].

Biological context of FLS2

  • The plant FLS2 genotype also had no detectable effect on disease outcome when previously untreated plants were infected by Xcc [1].
  • Analysis of crosses between Ws-3 and Nd-1 indicated co-segregation for the AvrPtoB virulence function with the absence of the Nd-1 FLS2 gene which mediates recognition of bacterial flagellin [4].

Anatomical context of FLS2

  • FLS2 shares structural and functional homologies with known plant resistance genes and with components involved in the innate immune system of mammals and insects [5].

Associations of FLS2 with chemical compounds

  • FLS2 was found to encode a leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinase with similarities to Toll-like receptors involved in the innate immune system of mammals and insects [6].
  • Advances in unveiling components of three LRR-RK signaling pathways, namely BRI1 in steroid signaling, CLV1 in meristem maintenance, and FLS2 in bacterial elicitor perception, revealed an intriguing link between plant LRR-RK and animal receptor signaling pathways [7].

Other interactions of FLS2

  • Furthermore, using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show physical interaction of KAPP with the kinase domain of FLS2 [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FLS2

  • Here, we demonstrate the specific interaction of the elicitor-active epitope flg22 with the FLS2 protein by chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation [9].


  1. Within-species flagellin polymorphism in Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris and its impact on elicitation of Arabidopsis FLAGELLIN SENSING2-dependent defenses. Sun, W., Dunning, F.M., Pfund, C., Weingarten, R., Bent, A.F. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Plant Stomata Function in Innate Immunity against Bacterial Invasion. Melotto, M., Underwood, W., Koczan, J., Nomura, K., He, S.Y. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Ligand-induced endocytosis of the pattern recognition receptor FLS2 in Arabidopsis. Robatzek, S., Chinchilla, D., Boller, T. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPtoB suppresses basal defence in Arabidopsis. de Torres, M., Mansfield, J.W., Grabov, N., Brown, I.R., Ammouneh, H., Tsiamis, G., Forsyth, A., Robatzek, S., Grant, M., Boch, J. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. FLS2: an LRR receptor-like kinase involved in the perception of the bacterial elicitor flagellin in Arabidopsis. Gómez-Gómez, L., Boller, T. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Sensitivity of different ecotypes and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana toward the bacterial elicitor flagellin correlates with the presence of receptor-binding sites. Bauer, Z., Gómez-Gómez, L., Boller, T., Felix, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases in plants: structure, function, and signal transduction pathways. Torii, K.U. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Both the extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and the kinase activity of FSL2 are required for flagellin binding and signaling in Arabidopsis. Gómez-Gómez, L., Bauer, Z., Boller, T. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FLS2 binds flg22 and determines the specificity of flagellin perception. Chinchilla, D., Bauer, Z., Regenass, M., Boller, T., Felix, G. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
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