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Gene Review

CAD1  -  protein constitutively activated cell death 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F15D2.24, F15D2_24, constitutively activated cell death 1
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Disease relevance of CAD1

  • Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing a CAD1 cDNA or the S. pombe gene catalyzing GSH-dependent, heavy metal-activated synthesis of PCs in vitro demonstrated that both genes encode PC synthase activity [1].
  • Inoculation of cad1 mutant plants with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 shows that the cad1 mutation results in the restriction of bacterial growth [2].

High impact information on CAD1

  • Cadmium-sensitive, cad1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana are phytochelatin deficient [3].
  • Undifferentiated cup1-1 callus tissue did not show the Cu-sensitive phenotype, suggesting that the mutant phenotype, in contrast to cad1 and cad2, is not expressed at the cellular level [4].
  • Tissue specific expression of CAD 1, B1, and G genes was determined using their promoters fused to the GUS reporter gene [5].
  • To clarify the processes involved in plant immunity, we have isolated and characterized a single recessive Arabidopsis mutant, cad1 (constitutively activated cell death 1), which shows a phenotype that mimics the lesions seen in the hypersensitive response (HR) [2].
  • We found that expression of the CAD1 gene and other W-box containing genes, such as NPR1 and PR2, was promoted by salicylic acid (SA) and benzothiadiazole (BTH) as a SA agonist [6].

Biological context of CAD1

  • The CAD1 gene, which encodes a protein containing a domain with significant homology to the MACPF (membrane attach complex and perforin) domain of complement components and perforin, is likely to control plant immunity negatively and has a W-box cis-element in its promoter region [6].

Associations of CAD1 with chemical compounds

  • Salicylic Acid and a Chitin Elicitor Both Control Expression of the CAD1 Gene Involved in the Plant Immunity of Arabidopsis [6].
  • The CAD1 expression promoted by BTH and the chitin elicitor was not suppressed in the npr1 mutant, which is insensitive to SA signaling [6].

Other interactions of CAD1

  • A Cu-sensitive mutant, cup1-1, of Arabidopsis thaliana has a pattern of heavy-metal sensitivity different from that of the cad1 and cad2 mutants, which are deficient in phytochelatin biosynthesis [4].
  • These results indicate that the CAD1 gene is regulated by two distinct pathways involving SA and a chitin elicitor: viz., SA signaling mediated through an NPR1-independent pathway, and chitin elicitor signaling, through an SA-independent pathway [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CAD1

  • Only CAD 1 protein can be detected in elongating stems, flowers, and siliques using Western-blot analysis [5].


  1. Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Ha, S.B., Smith, A.P., Howden, R., Dietrich, W.M., Bugg, S., O'Connell, M.J., Goldsbrough, P.B., Cobbett, C.S. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The Arabidopsis gene CAD1 controls programmed cell death in the plant immune system and encodes a protein containing a MACPF domain. Morita-Yamamuro, C., Tsutsui, T., Sato, M., Yoshioka, H., Tamaoki, M., Ogawa, D., Matsuura, H., Yoshihara, T., Ikeda, A., Uyeda, I., Yamaguchi, J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cadmium-sensitive, cad1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana are phytochelatin deficient. Howden, R., Goldsbrough, P.B., Andersen, C.R., Cobbett, C.S. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Copper-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. van Vliet, C., Anderson, C.R., Cobbett, C.S. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence for a role of AtCAD 1 in lignification of elongating stems of Arabidopsis thaliana. Eudes, A., Pollet, B., Sibout, R., Do, C.T., S??guin, A., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L. Planta (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Salicylic Acid and a Chitin Elicitor Both Control Expression of the CAD1 Gene Involved in the Plant Immunity of Arabidopsis. Tsutsui, T., Morita-Yamamuro, C., Asada, Y., Minami, E., Shibuya, N., Ikeda, A., Yamaguchi, J. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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