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Chemical Compound Review

salicylic acid     2-hydroxybenzoic acid

Synonyms: Acid, Salicylic, o-hydroxybenzoic acid, o Hydroxybenzoic Acid, 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 2 Hydroxybenzoic Acid, ...
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Disease relevance of o-hydroxybenzoic acid


Psychiatry related information on o-hydroxybenzoic acid


High impact information on o-hydroxybenzoic acid

  • This cell death requires salicylic acid, a plant immune system activator [11].
  • These data provide a missing link between accumulation of SA and activation of NPR1 in the SAR signaling pathway [12].
  • SAR induction results in accumulation of the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA), which induces defense gene expression via activation of NPR1 [12].
  • Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) levels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern and microarray hybridizations [13].
  • The effects of the controlled-release preparation on plasma levels of aspirin and salicylate, serum levels of thromboxane B2, and urinary dinor metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane B2 (measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were compared with those of conventional immediate-release aspirin in normal volunteers [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of o-hydroxybenzoic acid


Biological context of o-hydroxybenzoic acid


Anatomical context of o-hydroxybenzoic acid

  • Sodium salicylate increased fibrinolytic activities of blood and of purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, whereas aspirin had little effect [20].
  • To learn whether in vitro blastogenesis of lymphocytes is affected by in vivo salicylate ingestion, blood samples were obtained from 19 normal volunteers before and after therapeutic doses of aspirin [23].
  • Marsupials, placentals and their close therian relatives possess complex (tribosphenic) molars that are capable of versatile occlusal functions [24].
  • As salicylate blocks electromotility in cochlear outer hair cells at the same concentration, the role of prestin as a motor protein may need to be reassessed [25].
  • Scanning electron micrographs of goats fed controlled diets demonstrate that cementum bands preserve variations in the relative orientation of collagen fibers that reflect changes in the magnitude and frequency of occlusal forces from chewing different quality diets [26].

Associations of o-hydroxybenzoic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of o-hydroxybenzoic acid

  • Insulin resistance was improved by systemic neutralization of IL-6 or salicylate inhibition of IKK-beta [31].
  • EDS1 is essential for elaboration of the plant hypersensitive response, whereas EDS1 and PAD4 are both required for accumulation of the plant defence-potentiating molecule, salicylic acid [32].
  • We are systematically investigating the role of individual TGA factors in the transcriptional control of pathogenesis-related (PR) defense genes, whose expression is stimulated in leaves by salicylic acid (SA) through a stimulus pathway involving NPR1 [33].
  • In both responses, EDS1, assisted by its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), regulates accumulation of the phenolic defense molecule salicylic acid (SA) and other as yet unidentified signal intermediates [34].
  • ACD6, a novel ankyrin protein, is a regulator and an effector of salicylic acid signaling in the Arabidopsis defense response [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of o-hydroxybenzoic acid


  1. Sulfasalazine and salicylate-induced exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. Shanahan, F., Targan, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Decreased serum salicylate concentrations in children with rheumatic fever treated with antacid. Levy, G., Lampman, T., Kamath, B.L., Garrettson, L.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Salicylate-induced injury of pyruvate-kinase-deficient erythrocytes. Glader, B.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. An epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesic drugs. Effects of phenacetin and salicylate on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity (1968 to 1987). Dubach, U.C., Rosner, B., Stürmer, T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Salicylate and mitochondrial injury in Reye's syndrome. You, K. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Chronic salicylate poisoning and severe malaria. English, M., Marsh, V., Amukoye, E., Lowe, B., Murphy, S., Marsh, K. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Salicylic acid potentiates an agonist-dependent gain control that amplifies pathogen signals in the activation of defense mechanisms. Shirasu, K., Nakajima, H., Rajasekhar, V.K., Dixon, R.A., Lamb, C. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Physostigmine in mania. Davis, K.L., Berger, P.A., Hollister, L.E., Defraites, E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Transient fall in serum salicylate levels following intraarticular injection of steroid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Baer, P.A., Shore, A., Ikeman, R.L. Arthritis Rheum. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. A multicenter double-blind study of controlled-release physostigmine for the treatment of symptoms secondary to Alzheimer's disease. Physostigmine Study Group. Thal, L.J., Schwartz, G., Sano, M., Weiner, M., Knopman, D., Harrell, L., Bodenheimer, S., Rossor, M., Philpot, M., Schor, J., Goldberg, A. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Pathogen-induced, NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen intermediates suppress spread of cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. Torres, M.A., Jones, J.D., Dangl, J.L. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Inducers of plant systemic acquired resistance regulate NPR1 function through redox changes. Mou, Z., Fan, W., Dong, X. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance. Petersen, M., Brodersen, P., Naested, H., Andreasson, E., Lindhart, U., Johansen, B., Nielsen, H.B., Lacy, M., Austin, M.J., Parker, J.E., Sharma, S.B., Klessig, D.F., Martienssen, R., Mattsson, O., Jensen, A.B., Mundy, J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Suppression of thromboxane A2 but not of systemic prostacyclin by controlled-release aspirin. Clarke, R.J., Mayo, G., Price, P., FitzGerald, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Salicylate other than 5-aminosalicylic acid ineffective in ulcerative colitis. Campieri, M., Lanfranchi, G.A., Bazzocehi, G., Brignola, C., Corazza, G., Cortini, C., Michelini, M., Labó, G. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Analysis of regulatory elements involved in the induction of two tobacco genes by salicylate treatment and virus infection. Van de Rhee, M.D., Van Kan, J.A., González-Jaén, M.T., Bol, J.F. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Arabidopsis systemic immunity uses conserved defense signaling pathways and is mediated by jasmonates. Truman, W., Bennett, M.H., Kubigsteltig, I., Turnbull, C., Grant, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. The salicylate-derived mycobactin siderophores of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for growth in macrophages. De Voss, J.J., Rutter, K., Schroeder, B.G., Su, H., Zhu, Y., Barry, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of the gene for a small GTP binding protein in transgenic tobacco elevates endogenous cytokinin levels, abnormally induces salicylic acid in response to wounding, and increases resistance to tobacco mosaic virus infection. Sano, H., Seo, S., Orudgev, E., Youssefian, S., Ishizuka, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased blood fibrinolytic activity after aspirin ingestion. Moroz, L.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of NF-kappa B by sodium salicylate and aspirin. Kopp, E., Ghosh, S. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Fever: effect of drug-induced antipyresis on survival. Bernheim, H.A., Kluger, M.J. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Suppression of lymphocyte transformation after aspirin ingestion. Crout, J.E., Hepburn, B., Ritts, R.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals. Luo, Z.X., Cifelli, R.L., Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Zhang, P.C., Keleshian, A.M., Sachs, F. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Life history variables preserved in dental cementum microstructure. Lieberman, D.E. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Jasmonate and salicylate induce expression of herbivore cytochrome P450 genes. Li, X., Schuler, M.A., Berenbaum, M.R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Direct sensing of heat and oxidation by Drosophila heat shock transcription factor. Zhong, M., Orosz, A., Wu, C. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Suppression of human colorectal mucosal prostaglandins: determining the lowest effective aspirin dose. Ruffin, M.T., Krishnan, K., Rock, C.L., Normolle, D., Vaerten, M.A., Peters-Golden, M., Crowell, J., Kelloff, G., Boland, C.R., Brenner, D.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Salicylate induces an antibiotic efflux pump in Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III (B. cenocepacia). Nair, B.M., Cheung, K.J., Griffith, A., Burns, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Local and systemic insulin resistance resulting from hepatic activation of IKK-beta and NF-kappaB. Cai, D., Yuan, M., Frantz, D.F., Melendez, P.A., Hansen, L., Lee, J., Shoelson, S.E. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4. Feys, B.J., Moisan, L.J., Newman, M.A., Parker, J.E. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Salicylic acid and NPR1 induce the recruitment of trans-activating TGA factors to a defense gene promoter in Arabidopsis. Johnson, C., Boden, E., Arias, J. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7. Bartsch, M., Gobbato, E., Bednarek, P., Debey, S., Schultze, J.L., Bautor, J., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. ACD6, a novel ankyrin protein, is a regulator and an effector of salicylic acid signaling in the Arabidopsis defense response. Lu, H., Rate, D.N., Song, J.T., Greenberg, J.T. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Salicylic acid attenuates virulence in endovascular infections by targeting global regulatory pathways in Staphylococcus aureus. Kupferwasser, L.I., Yeaman, M.R., Nast, C.C., Kupferwasser, D., Xiong, Y.Q., Palma, M., Cheung, A.L., Bayer, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Potentiation of aspirin-induced gastric lesions by exposure to cold in rats. Role of acid secretion, mucosal blood flow, and gastric mucosal prostanoid content. Robert, A., Leung, F.W., Kaiser, D.G., Guth, P.H. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Utility of specimen angiography in angiodysplasia of the colon. Aldabagh, S.M., Trujillo, Y.P., Taxy, J.B. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
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