The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CTS1  -  Cts1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Endochitinase, L8003.13, SCW2, Soluble cell wall protein 2, YLR286C
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on CTS1

  • In contrast, ACE2 is a transcriptional activator of the CTS1 gene (which encodes chitinase), whereas SWI5 is not [1].
  • Consistent with this model, the extracellular proteins Gas1p and Cts1p were localized to an internal compartment in sporulating cells [2].
  • The Ace2p transcription factor is required for expression of CTS1 and has been shown to physically interact with Cbk1p [3].
  • These results suggest that a regulatory protein bound to the CTS1 promoter is needed to prevent Swi5p from activating CT1S expression [4].
  • Transcription of the CTS1 gene is reduced in sin4 delta mutants, suggesting that Sin4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator [5].

Biological context of CTS1

  • A genetic screen was conducted to identify suppressor mutations which allow CTS1 expression in the absence of the Ace2p activator [4].
  • Additionally, these mutants show altered colony morphology, cell separation defects, and reduced CTS1 expression, phenotypes also seen by mutating the Ace2 transcription factor [6].
  • The Candida albicans genome contains four chitinase genes, CHT1, CHT2, and CHT3, which are homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTS1 gene and C. albicans CHT4, which is homologous to S. cerevisiae CTS2 [7].
  • The cts1 gene contains five introns and a 1281-bp ORF which translates a 427-amino-acid (aa) protein of 47.4 kDa [8].
  • Finally, haploid K. lactis cells harboring a cts1 null mutation are viable but exhibit a cell separation defect, suggesting that KlCts1p is required for normal cytokinesis, probably by facilitating the degradation of septum-localized chitin [9].

Anatomical context of CTS1

  • Consistent with this, Pneumocystis CBK1 expression also stimulated transcription of the CTS1 chitinase in cbk1 Delta mutant yeast cells, an event necessary for cell wall separation [10].
  • Two enzyme encoding genes CTS1 and EGT2, which function in the separation of daughter cells from their mother cells, were down-regulated by a factor of 3.7 and 10.2, respectively, indicating that 5-fluorocytosine may also inhibit the separation of fungal cells [11].

Regulatory relationships of CTS1

  • Cbk1 controls the expression of CTS1 (encoding chitinase) through the transcription factor Ace2 [12].
  • Regulated nuclear localisation of the yeast transcription factor Ace2p controls expression of chitinase (CTS1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [13].

Other interactions of CTS1

  • We have identified specific regions of Swi5 and Ace2 that are required for activation of HO and CTS1, respectively [14].
  • To determine if the attached cells formed in Myosin II-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae result from deficient chitinase 1 (CTS1) expression, the activity of chitinase 1 was assayed [15].
  • Repression of CTS1 results in deficient cell separation as a result of inefficient degradation of the chitin ring after cytokinesis [12].
  • This separation defect is due to a reduction in expression of CTS1 (the gene encoding chitinase) and a group of genes involved in cell separation (such as ENG1,SCW11, DSE1 and DSE2) [16].
  • We propose that CTS1 and CTS2 of Ci are members of two distinct classes of fungal chitinases, an observation not previously reported for a single fungus [8].


  1. Parallel pathways of gene regulation: homologous regulators SWI5 and ACE2 differentially control transcription of HO and chitinase. Dohrmann, P.R., Butler, G., Tamai, K., Dorland, S., Greene, J.R., Thiele, D.J., Stillman, D.J. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Prospore membrane formation defines a developmentally regulated branch of the secretory pathway in yeast. Neiman, A.M. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The Cbk1p pathway is important for polarized cell growth and cell separation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bidlingmaier, S., Weiss, E.L., Seidel, C., Drubin, D.G., Snyder, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of negative regulation in promoter specificity of the homologous transcriptional activators Ace2p and Swi5p. Dohrmann, P.R., Voth, W.P., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of the SIN4 global transcriptional regulator in the chromatin structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Jiang, Y.W., Stillman, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. ACE2, CBK1, and BUD4 in budding and cell separation. Voth, W.P., Olsen, A.E., Sbia, M., Freedman, K.H., Stillman, D.J. Eukaryotic Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Candida albicans CHT3 encodes the functional homolog of the Cts1 chitinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dünkler, A., Walther, A., Specht, C.A., Wendland, J. Fungal Genet. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of two chitinase-encoding genes (cts1, cts2) from the fungus Coccidioides immitis. Pishko, E.J., Kirkland, T.N., Cole, G.T. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of a nucleus-encoded chitinase from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Colussi, P.A., Specht, C.A., Taron, C.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Pneumocystis carinii cell wall biosynthesis kinase gene CBK1 is an environmentally responsive gene that complements cell wall defects of cbk-deficient yeast. Kottom, T.J., Limper, A.H. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression profiling of the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to 5-fluorocytosine using a DNA microarray. Zhang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhou, Y., Zhao, Y., Zhou, Y., Cheng, J. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Lre1 affects chitinase expression, trehalose accumulation and heat resistance through inhibition of the Cbk1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Versele, M., Thevelein, J.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulated nuclear localisation of the yeast transcription factor Ace2p controls expression of chitinase (CTS1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O'Conallain, C., Doolin, M.T., Taggart, C., Thornton, F., Butler, G. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Distinct regions of the Swi5 and Ace2 transcription factors are required for specific gene activation. McBride, H.J., Yu, Y., Stillman, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Elevated expression of chitinase 1 and chitin synthesis in myosin II-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rodríguez-Medina, J.R., Cruz, J.A., Robbins, P.W., Bi, E., Pringle, J.R. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Swm1p subunit of the APC/cyclosome is required for activation of the daughter-specific gene expression program mediated by Ace2p during growth at high temperature in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ufano, S., Pablo, M.E., Calzada, A., del Rey, F., Vázquez de Aldana, C.R. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities