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Gene Review

BAR1  -  Bar1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: BAR proteinase, Barrierpepsin, Extracellular 'barrier' protein, SST1, YIL015W
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High impact information on BAR1

  • The MAT alpha 2 protein represses the transcription of a-cell-specific genes, including BAR1, in alpha and a/alpha diploid cells [1].
  • In yeast alpha cells the a cell-specific genes STE6 and BAR1 are packaged as gene-sized chromatin domains of positioned nucleosomes [2].
  • We report here the DNA sequence of BAR1, the structural gene for barrier activity [3].
  • Other yeast genes with PREs, e.g., STE2 and BAR1, are more modestly inducible and have additional UAS elements contributing to the overall activity [4].
  • Control of yeast cell type by the mating type locus. I. Identification and control of expression of the a-specific gene BAR1 [5].

Biological context of BAR1

  • The amino acid sequence deduced from the gene shows extensive homology to a number of aspartyl proteases including the PEP4 and BAR1 gene products from S. cerevisiae [6].
  • In contrast to the BAR1 gene product, the novel aspartyl protease (YAP3 for Yeast Aspartyl Protease 3) contains a C-terminal serine/threonine-rich sequence and potential transmembrane domain similar to those found in the KEX2 gene product [6].
  • According to the published sequence of the CHS1 gene, this fragment contains four repeats of a TGAAACA consensus sequence previously identified in the alpha-factor-inducible BAR1 promoter [Kronstad, J. W., Holly, J. A. and MacKay, V. L. (1987) Cell 50, 369-377] [7].
  • Forty-eight mRNAs were found to change significantly in translation state following release from alpha-factor arrest, including genes involved in pheromone response and cell cycle arrest such as BAR1, SST2, and FAR1 [8].
  • 5. The properties of this activity have important implications concerning the role of the BAR1 gene product in recovery of mating-type a cells from cell division arrest by alpha-factor [9].

Associations of BAR1 with chemical compounds

  • We report here that a positioned nucleosome in the BAR1 promoter is disrupted in cis by the insertion of diverse DNA sequences such as poly(dA) . poly(dT) and poly(dC-dG) . poly(dC-dG), leading to inappropriate partial derepression of BAR1 [10].

Other interactions of BAR1

  • Analysis of axl1Delta in combination with other mutations that cause defects in morphogenesis or pheromone sensitivity (e.g. bar1, sst2, afr1) indicated that both phenotypes of ste2-T326 cells, supersensitivity to alpha-factor and the defect in forming pointed projections, contributed to the synergistic mating defect [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BAR1

  • Complementation tests and linkage analysis showed that sst1 and bar1, a mutation which eliminates the ability of MATa cells to act as a "barrier" to the diffusion of alpha factor, were lesions in the same genes [12].


  1. A yeast operator overlaps an upstream activation site. Kronstad, J.W., Holly, J.A., MacKay, V.L. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. The organized chromatin domain of the repressed yeast a cell-specific gene STE6 contains two molecules of the corepressor Tup1p per nucleosome. Ducker, C.E., Simpson, R.T. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAR1 gene encodes an exported protein with homology to pepsin. MacKay, V.L., Welch, S.K., Insley, M.Y., Manney, T.R., Holly, J., Saari, G.C., Parker, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Pheromone response elements are necessary and sufficient for basal and pheromone-induced transcription of the FUS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hagen, D.C., McCaffrey, G., Sprague, G.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Control of yeast cell type by the mating type locus. I. Identification and control of expression of the a-specific gene BAR1. Sprague, G.F., Herskowitz, I. J. Mol. Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel aspartyl protease allowing KEX2-independent MF alpha propheromone processing in yeast. Egel-Mitani, M., Flygenring, H.P., Hansen, M.T. Yeast (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Hormone-induced expression of the CHS1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appeltauer, U., Achstetter, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. The transcriptome and its translation during recovery from cell cycle arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Serikawa, K.A., Xu, X.L., MacKay, V.L., Law, G.L., Zong, Q., Zhao, L.P., Bumgarner, R., Morris, D.R. Mol. Cell Proteomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of the BAR1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: induction by the alpha mating pheromone of an activity associated with a secreted protein. Manney, T.R. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of Sequence-Directed Nucleosome Disruption on Cell-Type-Specific Repression by {alpha}2/Mcm1 in the Yeast Genome. Morohashi, N., Yamamoto, Y., Kuwana, S., Morita, W., Shindo, H., Mitchell, A.P., Shimizu, M. Eukaryotic Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Combining mutations in the incoming and outgoing pheromone signal pathways causes a synergistic mating defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Giot, L., DeMattei, C., Konopka, J.B. Yeast (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and alpha factor pheromones. Chan, R.K., Otte, C.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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