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Gene Review

CHS1  -  chitin synthase CHS1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Chitin synthase 1, Chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 1, N1404, YNL192W
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Disease relevance of CHS1


High impact information on CHS1


Biological context of CHS1

  • Gene disruption experiments led to the conclusion that CHS2 is essential for cell division [Silverman, S.J., Sburlati, A., Slater, M.L. & Cabib, E. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4735-4739], whereas CHS1 is not [6].
  • However, deletion of the CHS1 gene did not affect the phenotype of the gas1 delta mutant and only slightly reduced the chitin content [7].
  • CHS1 gene expression did not peak during germ tube formation but remained at low levels in both yeast and hyphal growth [8].
  • According to the published sequence of the CHS1 gene, this fragment contains four repeats of a TGAAACA consensus sequence previously identified in the alpha-factor-inducible BAR1 promoter [Kronstad, J. W., Holly, J. A. and MacKay, V. L. (1987) Cell 50, 369-377] [9].
  • In order to minimize possible side effects of CHS1-coding sequences on expression and mRNA stability a CHS1::SUC2 chimaeric gene was constructed where 730 bp of the CHS1 promoter region (+20 bp of the coding region) were fused in frame to a fragment of the SUC2 coding region [9].

Anatomical context of CHS1


Associations of CHS1 with chemical compounds

  • Mutants defective in chitin synthase III are resistant to Calcofluor and Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxin, they lack alkali-insoluble glucan, and under certain circumstances, they are temperature-sensitive for growth [15].
  • The decrease in the amount of chitin in vegetative cells and the absence of chitosan in spores suggested that the mutant dit101 could be defective in a chitin synthase [16].
  • Calcofluor staining of the chs-1RIP strain cross-walls, residual chitin synthase activity, and the increased sensitivity of the chs-1RIP strain to Nikkomycin Z suggest that N. crassa produces additional chitin synthase that can participate in cell wall formation [5].
  • Together with similar, previously reported experiments on the inactivation of chitin synthase by glutaraldehyde, these results indicate that the enzyme faces the interior of the cell [13].
  • Chs2 also shows less sensitivity than Chs1 to inhibition by polyoxin D or sodium chloride, a property that was used to demonstrate the presence of Chs2 in wild-type extracts [17].

Physical interactions of CHS1

  • Together, these results indicate that the formation of the Bni4-Glc7 complex is required for localization to the site of bud emergence and for subsequent targeting of chitin synthase [18].
  • Chs5p is a late-Golgi protein required for the polarized transport of the chitin synthase Chs3p to the membrane [19].

Regulatory relationships of CHS1

  • These results, together with the previous knowledge that Co2+ stimulates Chs2 and Chs3 but inhibits Chs1 and that the three synthetases differ in their pH optimum, have enabled us to formulate conditions for the specific determination of each synthetase in the presence of the others [20].

Other interactions of CHS1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHS1

  • Chitin synthase II is required for normal morphology, septation, and cell separation [15].
  • Cloning and sequencing of the PCR products of one of these fungi, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, identified three CHS sequences designated as FpCHS1, FpCHS2 and FpCHS3 [1].
  • Microarray analysis confirmed the importance of Mcm1p-mediated DNA bending in maintaining correct gene expression profiles and revealed defects in Mcm1p-mediated repression of Ty elements and in the expression of the cell cycle-regulated YFR and CHS1 genes [25].
  • The encoded chitin synthase product (WdChs4p) showed high homology with Chs3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other class IV chitin synthases, and Northern blotting showed that WdCHS4 was expressed at constitutive levels under all conditions tested [26].
  • 1. An improved filtration method is introduced to perform kinetic investigations on the chitin synthase reaction [27].


  1. Identification of the conserved coding sequences of three chitin synthase genes in Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Karuppayil, S.M., Peng, M., Mendoza, L., Levins, T.A., Szaniszlo, P.J. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 (ETG1) gene encodes an integral membrane protein which is a subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. Douglas, C.M., Foor, F., Marrinan, J.A., Morin, N., Nielsen, J.B., Dahl, A.M., Mazur, P., Baginsky, W., Li, W., el-Sherbeini, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of nikkomycins X and Z in murine models of coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. Hector, R.F., Zimmer, B.L., Pappagianis, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The S. cerevisiae structural gene for chitin synthase is not required for chitin synthesis in vivo. Bulawa, C.E., Slater, M., Cabib, E., Au-Young, J., Sburlati, A., Adair, W.L., Robbins, P.W. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Chitin synthase 1 plays a major role in cell wall biogenesis in Neurospora crassa. Yarden, O., Yanofsky, C. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Chitin synthase I and chitin synthase II are not required for chitin synthesis in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bulawa, C.E., Osmond, B.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Chitin synthesis in a gas1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Valdivieso, M.H., Ferrario, L., Vai, M., Duran, A., Popolo, L. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of chitin synthesis during dimorphic growth of Candida albicans. Munro, C.A., Schofield, D.A., Gooday, G.W., Gow, N.A. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Hormone-induced expression of the CHS1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appeltauer, U., Achstetter, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Chitin synthase 1, an auxiliary enzyme for chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cabib, E., Sburlati, A., Bowers, B., Silverman, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Chs1p and Chs3p, two proteins involved in chitin synthesis, populate a compartment of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocytic pathway. Ziman, M., Chuang, J.S., Schekman, R.W. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Chs5/6 Complex: A Multiprotein Complex That Interacts with and Conveys Chitin Synthase III from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Cell Surface. Sanchatjate, S., Schekman, R. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Vectorial synthesis of a polysaccharide by isolated plasma membranes. Cabib, E., Bowers, B., Roberts, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. WdChs2p, a class I chitin synthase, together with WdChs3p (class III) contributes to virulence in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis. Wang, Z., Zheng, L., Liu, H., Wang, Q., Hauser, M., Kauffman, S., Becker, J.M., Szaniszlo, P.J. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetics and molecular biology of chitin synthesis in fungi. Bulawa, C.E. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. DIT101 (CSD2, CAL1), a cell cycle-regulated yeast gene required for synthesis of chitin in cell walls and chitosan in spore walls. Pammer, M., Briza, P., Ellinger, A., Schuster, T., Stucka, R., Feldmann, H., Breitenbach, M. Yeast (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Chitin synthetase 2, a presumptive participant in septum formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sburlati, A., Cabib, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. A Bni4-Glc7 phosphatase complex that recruits chitin synthase to the site of bud emergence. Kozubowski, L., Panek, H., Rosenthal, A., Bloecher, A., DeMarini, D.J., Tatchell, K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Specific protein targeting during cell differentiation: polarized localization of Fus1p during mating depends on Chs5p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Santos, B., Snyder, M. Eukaryotic Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The use of divalent cations and pH for the determination of specific yeast chitin synthetases. Choi, W.J., Cabib, E. Anal. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Chitin synthase III: synthetic lethal mutants and "stress related" chitin synthesis that bypasses the CSD3/CHS6 localization pathway. Osmond, B.C., Specht, C.A., Robbins, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. Martin, H., Dagkessamanskaia, A., Satchanska, G., Dallies, N., François, J. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Chr4, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Chs4p/Skt5p protein, is related to septum formation and is required for the proper localization of Chs2. Matsuo, Y., Matsuura, Y., Tanaka, K., Matsuda, H., Kawamukai, M. Yeast (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of chitin synthase genes in Fusarium oxysporum. Martín-Udíroz, M., Madrid, M.P., Roncero, M.I. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Mcm1p-induced DNA bending regulates the formation of ternary transcription factor complexes. Lim, F.L., Hayes, A., West, A.G., Pic-Taylor, A., Darieva, Z., Morgan, B.A., Oliver, S.G., Sharrocks, A.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. WdChs4p, a homolog of chitin synthase 3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alone cannot support growth of Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis at the temperature of infection. Wang, Z., Zheng, L., Hauser, M., Becker, J.M., Szaniszlo, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Improved assay and mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the chitin synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fähnrich, M., Ahlers, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
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