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Chemical Compound Review

Poly(dC-dG)     [(2R,3S,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo- 3H-purin-9...

Synonyms: Poly d(G-C), AC1L2354, 25512-84-9, 29855-95-6, Poly(dC).poly(dG), ...
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Disease relevance of Deoxyribo-GC polymer

  • Using both direct and competitive filter binding assays, we found that the eluted proteins bind to brominated poly(dG-dC) (Z-DNA) and poly(dG-m5dC) but not to poly(dG-dC) (B-DNA), native or denatured E. coli or calf thymus DNA, or brominated oligonucleotides [1].
  • Poly(dG-dC) . poly(dG-dC) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus DNA were modified by exposure to reductively activated mitomycin C, an antitumor antibiotic [2].
  • Substrates with extreme structural features, like poly(dA).poly(dT) or poly(dG).poly(dC), are cleaved by the Serratia nuclease with a 50 times higher or 10 times lower K(m), respectively, as salmon testis DNA [3].
  • Calculated compression, bending, shearing, torsion, and base-tilting force constants of B- and A-form poly(dG).poly(dC) [4].
  • The circular dichroic (CD) spectra of natural DNAs (from Cl. perfringens, T2 phage, calf thymus, E. coli, and M. lysodeikticus) as well as duplexes of synthetic DNAs (poly(dA) X poly(dT), poly(dA-dT), and poly(dG-dC] were measured in water-ethanol mixtures with 0.3 mM NaCl [5].

High impact information on Deoxyribo-GC polymer

  • Poly(dG-Br5dC) in the Z-form competed well for the binding of a zuotin containing fraction, but salmon sperm DNA, poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT) were not effective [6].
  • To further investigate the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of the beta-globin gene, 50-base-pair poly(dG-dC) tracts were introduced into various sites in a mouse-human hybrid gene, and these inserts were methylated by means of the Hha I methylase [7].
  • The presence of another purine-pyrimidine alternating sequence was also surveyed in eukaryotic genomes by Southern blot hybridization using 32P-labeled poly(dG-dC) . poly(dG-dC) as the probe [8].
  • Double-stranded DNA complementary to total poly(A)+RNA derived from a mouse pituitary thyrotropic tumor was prepared enzymatically, inserted into the Pst I site of the plasmid pBR322 by using poly(dC).poly(dG) homopolymeric extensions, and cloned in Escherichia coli chi 1776 [9].
  • Of the two synthetic double-stranded polymers, poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), bound to the diol-epoxide, only the former showed a marked hydrolysis after endonuclease S1 treatment, whereas binding occurred 24-fold more on the latter [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Deoxyribo-GC polymer


Biological context of Deoxyribo-GC polymer


Anatomical context of Deoxyribo-GC polymer

  • The hybridoma supernatants that reacted with HEp-2 cytoskeleton were either polyspecific for various nucleic acid antigens, such as single-stranded DNA, DNA, poly(dA:dT), poly(dG).poly(dC), RNA, and cardiolipin, or were restricted to cardiolipin [19].
  • Three proteins from bull testis, previously thought to be Z-DNA-binding proteins but recently found to recognize brominated poly(dG-dC). poly(dG-dC) by criteria different from the Z-conformation, were partially sequenced [20].
  • Differences in the CD spectra between poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)/chromatin, poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC)/chromatin and H1/H5 stripped chicken erythrocyte chromatin suggest subtle differences in assembly [21].

Associations of Deoxyribo-GC polymer with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Deoxyribo-GC polymer

  • The Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins also release 2, 6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamido-pyrimidine from damaged poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) [27].
  • High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 bind preferentially to brominated poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in the Z-DNA conformation but not to other types of Z-DNA [20].
  • We report here that a positioned nucleosome in the BAR1 promoter is disrupted in cis by the insertion of diverse DNA sequences such as poly(dA) . poly(dT) and poly(dC-dG) . poly(dC-dG), leading to inappropriate partial derepression of BAR1 [28].
  • One class, with broad specificity, reacted well with all sequences in the Z-form, including poly(dG-dC), poly(dG-dm5C), and poly (dG-dBr5C) in linear polymers and poly(dG-dC)n and poly[(dC-dA)n.(dT-dG)n] sequences in supercoiled plasmids [29].
  • We found that potential Z-DNA forming polymers such as, poly(dG-m5dC) X poly(dG-m5dC) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC), cotransfected with the tk gene decreased the level of Tk+ transformed colonies [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Deoxyribo-GC polymer


  1. Isolation of Drosophila proteins that bind selectively to left-handed Z-DNA. Nordheim, A., Tesser, P., Azorin, F., Kwon, Y.H., Möller, A., Rich, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Lack of Z-DNA conformation in mitomycin-modified polynucleotides having inverted circular dichroism. Tomasz, M., Barton, J.K., Magliozzo, C.C., Tucker, D., Lafer, E.M., Stollar, B.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Kinetic analysis of the cleavage of natural and synthetic substrates by the Serratia nuclease. Friedhoff, P., Meiss, G., Kolmes, B., Pieper, U., Gimadutdinow, O., Urbanke, C., Pingoud, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Calculated compression, bending, shearing, torsion, and base-tilting force constants of B- and A-form poly(dG).poly(dC). Putnam, B.F., Prohofsky, E.W., Van Zandt, L.L. Biopolymers (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Alcohol induced B-A transition of DNAs with different base compositions studied by circular dichroism. Nara-Inui, H., Akutsu, H., Kyogoku, Y. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Zuotin, a putative Z-DNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zhang, S., Lockshin, C., Herbert, A., Winter, E., Rich, A. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of in vitro DNA methylation on beta-globin gene expression. Yisraeli, J., Frank, D., Razin, A., Cedar, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel repeated element with Z-DNA-forming potential is widely found in evolutionarily diverse eukaryotic genomes. Hamada, H., Petrino, M.G., Kakunaga, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the pre-alpha-subunit of mouse thyrotropin. Chin, W.W., Kronenberg, H.M., Dee, P.C., Maloof, F., Habener, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Modification of DNA by the benzo[a]pyrene metabolite diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene. Kakefuda, T., Yamamoto, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. The Escherichia coli O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase does not repair promutagenic O6-methylguanine residues when present in Z-DNA. Boiteux, S., Costa de Oliveira, R., Laval, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Excision of the imidazole ring-opened form of N-2-aminofluorene-C(8)-guanine adduct in poly(dG-dC) by Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase. Boiteux, S., Bichara, M., Fuchs, R.P., Laval, J. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure-activity relationship of a series of C-terminus modified aminoalkyl, diaminoalkyl- and anilino-containing analogues of the benzoic acid mustard distamycin derivative tallimustine: synthesis, DNA binding and cytotoxicity studies. Brooks, N., Hartley, J.A., Simpson, J.E., Wright, S.R., Woo, S., Centioni, S., Fontaine, M.D., McIntyre, T.E., Lee, M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of neighboring DNA homopolymers on the biochemical and physical properties of the Escherichia coli lactose promoter. I. Cloning and characterization studies. Klein, R.D., Wells, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of intercalating drugs on the kinetics of the B to Z transition of poly(dG-dC). Mirau, P.A., Kearns, D.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Salt induced B----A transition of poly(dG).poly(dC) and the stabilization of A form by its methylation. Nishimura, Y., Torigoe, C., Tsuboi, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Interaction of Z form poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) with divalent metal ions: localization of the binding sites by I.R. spectroscopy. Taboury, J.A., Bourtayre, P., Liquier, J., Taillandier, E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Competitive nucleosome reconstitution of polydeoxynucleotides containing oligoguanosine tracts. Jayasena, S.D., Behe, M.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytoskeletal binding of monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies derived from tonsillar lymphoid cells of a normal subject. Cairns, E., Komar, R., Bell, D.A. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 bind preferentially to brominated poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in the Z-DNA conformation but not to other types of Z-DNA. Christen, T., Bischoff, M., Hobi, R., Kuenzle, C.C. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on synthetic chromatins containing poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC). Prevelige, P.E., Fasman, G.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Protonated polynucleotides structures - 22.CD study of the acid-base titration of poly(dG).poly(dC). Marck, C., Thiele, D., Schneider, C., Guschlbauer, W. Nucleic Acids Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Z-DNA conformation of N-2-acetylaminofluorene modified poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) determined by reactivity with anti cytidine antibodies and minimized potential energy calculations. Santella, R.M., Grunberger, D., Broyde, S., Hingerty, B.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. A stopped-flow H-D exchange kinetic study of spermine-polynucleotide interactions. Basu, H.S., Shafer, R.H., Marton, L.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Structural polymorphism of homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences at neutral pH. Kohwi, Y., Kohwi-Shigematsu, T. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Fluorescence-detected circular dichroism of ethidium bound to poly(dG-dC) and poly(dG-m5dC) under B- and Z-form conditions. Lamos, M.L., Walker, G.T., Krugh, T.R., Turner, D.H. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Substrate specificities of the ntg1 and ntg2 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for oxidized DNA bases are not identical. Sentürker, S., Auffret van der Kemp, P., You, H.J., Doetsch, P.W., Dizdaroglu, M., Boiteux, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of Sequence-Directed Nucleosome Disruption on Cell-Type-Specific Repression by {alpha}2/Mcm1 in the Yeast Genome. Morohashi, N., Yamamoto, Y., Kuwana, S., Morita, W., Shindo, H., Mitchell, A.P., Shimizu, M. Eukaryotic Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of Z-DNA in fixed polytene chromosomes with monoclonal antibodies that show base sequence-dependent selectivity in reactions with supercoiled plasmids and polynucleotides. Nordheim, A., Pardue, M.L., Weiner, L.M., Lowenhaupt, K., Scholten, P., Möller, A., Rich, A., Stollar, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfection in Ltk- cells by potential Z-DNA forming polymers. Banerjee, R., Carothers, A.M., Grunberger, D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Induction of the Z conformation in poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) by binding of N-2-acetylaminofluorene to guanine residues. Santella, R.M., Grunberger, D., Weinstein, I.B., Rich, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Z-DNA: vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism. Sutherland, J.C., Griffin, K.P., Keck, P.C., Takacs, P.Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  33. Carbohydrate-based DNA ligands: sugar-oligoamides as a tool to study carbohydrate-nucleic acid interactions. Martin, J.N., Muñoz, E.M., Schwergold, C., Souard, F., Asensio, J.L., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Cañada, J., Vicent, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of DNA structures by Raman spectroscopy: high-salt and low-salt forms of double helical poly(dG-dC) in H2O and D2O solutions and application to B, Z and A-DNA. Benevides, J.M., Thomas, G.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Probing the surface of Z-DNA with anti-nucleoside antibodies. Nahon, E., Grunberger, D., Erlanger, B.F. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
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