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Gene Review

narL  -  response regulator in two-component...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1215, JW1212, frdR
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Disease relevance of narL


High impact information on narL

  • Analysis of narX* and narL missense alleles in narQ+ versus narQ::Tn10 backgrounds suggests that NarQ and NarX may have subtle functional differences [3].
  • The narX, narQ and narL genes of Escherichia coli encode a nitrate-responsive two-component regulatory system that controls the expression of many anaerobic electron-transport- and fermentation-related genes [4].
  • Disruption of narL decreases nitrite induction of the nirB promoter whilst not suppressing induction by nitrate, suggesting that there may be a second nitrate-responsive factor [5].
  • No nitrate repression was detected in a narL mutant, but nitrite induction was unaffected, indicating that the nitrite-sensing mechanism is independent of the NarL protein [6].
  • Nucleotide sequence of the narL gene that is involved in global regulation of nitrate controlled respiratory genes of Escherichia coli [7].

Biological context of narL

  • The narL gene product is a nitrate-responsive activator and repressor of anaerobic respiratory gene expression [8].
  • We report here the nucleotide sequences of narL and narX [9].
  • Second, nitrate induction of aeg-46.5 operon expression is substantially enhanced in narL null strains (M.H. Choe and W.S. Reznikoff, J. Bacteriol. 173:6139-6146, 1991) [10].
  • The narL505(V88A) allele was largely dominant to narL+, while narX+ had a negative influence on its constitutive phenotype, suggesting that NarX may play a negative role in nitrate regulation [1].
  • Multicopy plasmids containing both narL+ and narX+ or only narL+ were able to complement narL mutants, whereas narX+ plasmids complemented narX mutants only when present in a copy number approximately equal to that of narL [11].

Associations of narL with chemical compounds

  • This regulation requires molybdate and is mediated by the narX and narL gene products, which together form a two-component regulatory system [12].
  • Formate induction was not mediated by the fhlA gene product, and nitrate repression was not mediated by the narL gene product [13].

Regulatory relationships of narL


Other interactions of narL

  • Stimulation of expression by nitrate occurred in an fnr mutant but not in a narL mutant [15].


  1. Mutational analysis of nitrate regulatory gene narL in Escherichia coli K-12. Egan, S.M., Stewart, V. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic evidence that NarL function is not required for nitrate regulation of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al. Stewart, V., Cali, B.M. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Either of two functionally redundant sensor proteins, NarX and NarQ, is sufficient for nitrate regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. Rabin, R.S., Stewart, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli NarX sensor-transmitter protein in nitrate-dependent signal transduction and gene regulation. Cavicchioli, R., Chiang, R.C., Kalman, L.V., Gunsalus, R.P. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Definition of nitrite and nitrate response elements at the anaerobically inducible Escherichia coli nirB promoter: interactions between FNR and NarL. Tyson, K.L., Bell, A.I., Cole, J.A., Busby, S.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation and sequence of the structural gene for cytochrome c552 from Escherichia coli: not a hexahaem but a 50 kDa tetrahaem nitrite reductase. Darwin, A., Hussain, H., Griffiths, L., Grove, J., Sambongi, Y., Busby, S., Cole, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of the narL gene that is involved in global regulation of nitrate controlled respiratory genes of Escherichia coli. Gunsalus, R.P., Kalman, L.V., Stewart, R.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. In vitro interaction of nitrate-responsive regulatory protein NarL with DNA target sequences in the fdnG, narG, narK and frdA operon control regions of Escherichia coli K-12. Li, J., Kustu, S., Stewart, V. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12. Stewart, V., Parales, J., Merkel, S.M. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Dual response regulators (NarL and NarP) interact with dual sensors (NarX and NarQ) to control nitrate- and nitrite-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Rabin, R.S., Stewart, V. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a second gene involved in global regulation of fumarate reductase and other nitrate-controlled genes for anaerobic respiration in Escherichia coli. Kalman, L.V., Gunsalus, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Nitrate- and molybdenum-independent signal transduction mutations in narX that alter regulation of anaerobic respiratory genes in Escherichia coli. Kalman, L.V., Gunsalus, R.P. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Anaerobic regulation of the hydrogenase 1 (hya) operon of Escherichia coli. Brøndsted, L., Atlung, T. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of the regulatory sequence of anaerobically expressed locus aeg-46.5. Choe, M., Reznikoff, W.S. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of alternative promoter elements in transcription from the nar promoter of Escherichia coli. Walker, M.S., DeMoss, J.A. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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