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Gene Review

frr  -  ribosome recycling factor

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0171, JW0167, rrf
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Disease relevance of frr


High impact information on frr

  • Transposon insertions upstream of the frr gene, which encodes RF4 (ribosome release or recycling factor), restored growth to this mutant [3].
  • An E. coli strain was constructed (MC1061-2), which carried frame-shifted frr in the chromosome and wild-type frr on a temperature-sensitive plasmid [4].
  • MC1061-2 is temperature-sensitive in its growth and does not segregate its frr-carrying plasmid under the plasmid incompatibility pressure [4].
  • These observations establish that frr is an essential gene for cell growth [4].
  • All spontaneously formed thermoresistant colonies derived from MC1061-2 carried wild-type frr that resided either in the bacterial chromosome by re-exchange or in the plasmid, which became temperature-resistant [4].

Biological context of frr


Anatomical context of frr

  • Ribosome recycling factor (RRF), coded for by the frr locus, is involved in the disassembly of post-termination complexes and recycling of the ribosomes for a fresh round of initiation in bacteria and in eukaryotic organelles [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of frr


  1. Localization of the ribosome-releasing factor gene in the Escherichia coli chromosome. Ichikawa, S., Ryoji, M., Siegfried, Z., Kaji, A. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Ribosome run through of the termination codon in the absence of the ribosome releasing factor. Ogawa, K., Kaji, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Ribosome release factor RF4 and termination factor RF3 are involved in dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosome. Heurgué-Hamard, V., Karimi, R., Mora, L., MacDougall, J., Leboeuf, C., Grentzmann, G., Ehrenberg, M., Buckingham, R.H. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Ribosome recycling factor (ribosome releasing factor) is essential for bacterial growth. Janosi, L., Shimizu, I., Kaji, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular cloning, sequencing, purification, and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ribosome recycling factor. Ohnishi, M., Janosi, L., Shuda, M., Matsumoto, H., Hayashi, T., Terawaki, Y., Kaji, A. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular cloning and expression of ribosome releasing factor. Ichikawa, S., Kaji, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene coding for a ribosome releasing factor-homologous protein of Brucella melitensis. Vizcaíno, N., Cloeckaert, A., Dubray, G., Zygmunt, M.S. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of the promoter region of the ribosome-releasing factor cistron (frr). Shimizu, I., Kaji, A. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and a mutant lacking six amino acids from the C-terminal end reveals that the C-terminal residues are important for its occupancy on the ribosome. Rao, A.R., Varshney, U. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
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