The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Genes


High impact information on Genes

  • Our results suggest that the spatial segregation of Tem1 and Lte1 ensures that exit from mitosis only occurs after the genetic material is partitioned between mother and daughter cell [6].
  • The resistance to chloramphenicol is due to the presence of the catP gene on a truncated transposon that has lost mobility because of internal deletions, and the transformation of genetic material between strains of N. meningitidis probably played an important part in the dissemination of the gene [7].
  • We have performed a detailed transcriptional analysis in vivo and have found that the his mRNA in this polar mutant is reduced in size as a result of premature termination of transcription at a cryptic Rho-dependent site within the proximal region of the hisC cistron [3].
  • The virG region was localized to within 4 kb and may contain a single cistron [8].
  • We have established the DNA sequence of nine yeast mutants that prevent the expression either of the split cytochrome b gene alone (five mutants) or of two split genes, the cytochrome b gene and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (four mutants) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes


Biological context of Genes


Anatomical context of Genes

  • Translation of the lysis cistron of MS2 RNA requires a frameshift of ribosomes reading the upstream coat protein mRNA [20].
  • The critical structure for the apparent restriction by the K or D regions of the H-2 gene complex of cytolytic interactions between T cells and virus-infected target cells are therefore each coded, at least as shown for the K region, by a single cistron [21].
  • In situ hybridization analysis shows strong expression of the H19 gene in eight complete hydatidiform moles, hyperplastic tissues consisting of trophoblasts which contain only paternally derived genetic material, indicating that H19 is not functionally imprinted in this tissue [22].
  • Cytokinesis in animal cells is accomplished through constriction of an actomyosin ring [1] [2] [3], which must assemble at the correct time and place in order to ensure proper division of genetic material and organelles [23].
  • When a dicistronic reporter vector, with c-myc 5' UTR inserted between the two cistrons, was transfected into both HepG2 and HeLa cells, the translation of the downstream cistron was increased by 50-fold, demonstrating that translational regulation of c-myc is mediated through cap-independent mechanisms [24].

Associations of Genes with chemical compounds


Gene context of Genes

  • We report here the characterization of ACT2, a previously undescribed yeast split gene encoding a putative protein (391 amino acids, relative molecular mass (Mr) 44,073) that is 47% identical to yeast actin [30].
  • KIN28, a yeast split gene coding for a putative protein kinase homologous to CDC28 [31].
  • One of the two HCF106 homologues is encoded by the first gene of a four cistron operon, tatABCD, and the second by an unlinked gene, tatE [32].
  • The second cistron was not expressed in control dicistronic constructs that lacked these sequences or contained the 5' leader sequence of the CLN3 mRNA in the intercistronic region [33].
  • Two F cistrons, traS and traT, are independently responsible for part of the whole mechanism [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes


  1. Transcription antitermination in vitro by lambda N gene product: requirement for a phage nut site and the products of host nusA, nusB, and nusE genes. Das, A., Wolska, K. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Binding of mammalian ribosomes to MS2 phage RNA reveals an overlapping gene encoding a lysis function. Atkins, J.F., Steitz, J.A., Anderson, C.W., Model, P. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. In vivo analysis of the mechanisms responsible for strong transcriptional polarity in a "sense" mutant within an intercistronic region. Alifano, P., Ciampi, M.S., Nappo, A.G., Bruni, C.B., Carlomagno, M.S. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Nitrogen regulatory locus "glnR" of enteric bacteria is composed of cistrons ntrB and ntrC: identification of their protein products. McFarland, N., McCarter, L., Artz, S., Kustu, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Loss of polymorphic restriction fragments in malignant melanoma: implications for tumor heterogeneity. Dracopoli, N.C., Houghton, A.N., Old, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. A mechanism for coupling exit from mitosis to partitioning of the nucleus. Bardin, A.J., Visintin, R., Amon, A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. High-level chloramphenicol resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. Galimand, M., Gerbaud, G., Guibourdenche, M., Riou, J.Y., Courvalin, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. A genetic determinant required for continuous reinfection of adjacent cells on large plasmid in S. flexneri 2a. Makino, S., Sasakawa, C., Kamata, K., Kurata, T., Yoshikawa, M. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Critical sequences within mitochondrial introns: pleiotropic mRNA maturase and cis-dominant signals of the box intron controlling reductase and oxidase. De La Salle, H., Jacq, C., Slonimski, P.P. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides block interstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction. Isaka, Y., Tsujie, M., Ando, Y., Nakamura, H., Kaneda, Y., Imai, E., Hori, M. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The nature of genetic instability in auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium requiring cysteine or methionine and resistant to inhibition by 1,2,4-triazole. Kingsman, A.J., Smith, D.A. Genetics (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Two cistrons of the gerC operon of Bacillus subtilis encode the two subunits of heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase. Zhang, Y.W., Koyama, T., Ogura, K. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and sequence analysis of Escherichia coli purE and purK genes encoding 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazole carboxylase for de novo purine biosynthesis. Watanabe, W., Sampei, G., Aiba, A., Mizobuchi, K. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin cistron entF and coupled expression of entF and the fes gene. Pettis, G.S., McIntosh, M.A. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Posttranscriptional trans-activation in cauliflower mosaic virus. Bonneville, J.M., Sanfaçon, H., Fütterer, J., Hohn, T. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Organization of coding and intervening sequences in the chicken ovalbumin split gene. Mandel, J.L., Breathnach, R., Gerlinger, P., Le Meur, M., Gannon, F., Chambon, P. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Secondary activation of c-abl may be related to translocation to the nucleolar organizer region in an in vitro cultured rat leukemia cell line (K3D). Takahashi, R., Mihara, K., Maeda, S., Yamaguchi, T., Chen, H.L., Aoyama, N., Murao, S., Hatanaka, M., Sugiyama, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. The stability of the RNA bases: implications for the origin of life. Levy, M., Miller, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Recombination involving transposable elements: role of target molecule replication in Tn1 delta Ap-mediated replicon fusion. Muster, C.J., Shapiro, J.A., MacHattie, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Lysis gene expression of RNA phage MS2 depends on a frameshift during translation of the overlapping coat protein gene. Kastelein, R.A., Remaut, E., Fiers, W., van Duin, J. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. H-2 compatibility requirement for virus-specific T-cell-mediated cytolysis. The H-2K structure involved is coded by a single cistron defined by H-2Kb mutant mice. Zinkernagel, R.M. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Paternally derived H19 is differentially expressed in malignant and nonmalignant trophoblast. Walsh, C., Miller, S.J., Flam, F., Fisher, R.A., Ohlsson, R. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. A myosin light chain mediates the localization of the budding yeast IQGAP-like protein during contractile ring formation. Shannon, K.B., Li, R. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. C-Myc 5' untranslated region contains an internal ribosome entry segment. Stoneley, M., Paulin, F.E., Le Quesne, J.P., Chappell, S.A., Willis, A.E. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. A mutation in the catalytic cistron of aspartate carbamoyltransferase affecting catalysis, regulatory response and holoenzyme assembly. Wild, J.R., Foltermann, K.F., Roof, W.D., O'Donovan, G.A. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of bromodeoxyuridine on redundancy of ribosomal RNA cistrons of Drosophila virilis. Krider, H.M., Blake, J.A. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Ribonuclease E provides substrates for ribonuclease P-dependent processing of a polycistronic mRNA. Alifano, P., Rivellini, F., Piscitelli, C., Arraiano, C.M., Bruni, C.B., Carlomagno, M.S. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Lymphokine racketeers? Cistron alleges foul play over IL-1, but Immunex sees it differently. Hopp, T.P. Nat. Biotechnol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Rates of decomposition of ribose and other sugars: implications for chemical evolution. Larralde, R., Robertson, M.P., Miller, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. New yeast actin-like gene required late in the cell cycle. Schwob, E., Martin, R.P. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. KIN28, a yeast split gene coding for a putative protein kinase homologous to CDC28. Simon, M., Seraphin, B., Faye, G. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Overlapping functions of components of a bacterial Sec-independent protein export pathway. Sargent, F., Bogsch, E.G., Stanley, N.R., Wexler, M., Robinson, C., Berks, B.C., Palmer, T. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Transcript leader regions of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites that function in living cells. Zhou, W., Edelman, G.M., Mauro, V.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Cell--cell interactions in conjugating Escherichia coli: role of traT protein in surface exclusion. Achtman, M., Kennedy, N., Skurray, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Electron microscopy and restriction enzyme mapping reveal additional intervening sequences in the chicken ovalbumin split gene. Garapin, A.C., Cami, B., Roskam, W., Kourilsky, P., Le Pennec, J.P., Perrin, F., Gerlinger, P., Cochet, M., Chambon, P. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  36. Retroviral vectors containing putative internal ribosome entry sites: development of a polycistronic gene transfer system and applications to human gene therapy. Morgan, R.A., Couture, L., Elroy-Stein, O., Ragheb, J., Moss, B., Anderson, W.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Melatonin and protection from genetic damage in blood and bone marrow: whole-body irradiation studies in mice. Vijayalaxmi, n.u.l.l., Meltz, M.L., Reiter, R.J., Herman, T.S. J. Pineal Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Genetic structure and regulation of the cysG gene in Salmonella typhimurium. Goldman, B.S., Roth, J.R. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Cloning and in vitro characterization of the grapevine fanleaf virus proteinase cistron. Margis, R., Viry, M., Pinck, M., Pinck, L. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities