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Gene Review

fadL  -  long-chain fatty acid outer membrane...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK2338, JW2341, ttr
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Disease relevance of fadL


High impact information on fadL

  • The fadL insertion mutant H5 was defective for long-chain fatty acid transport but bound oleic acid at significant levels [2].
  • The hexameric insertion at the SalI site (fadL allele termed S1; insertion after amino acid 410) conferred an Oleslow phenotype and resulted in a reduction of long-chain fatty acid transport (36% the wild-type level) [2].
  • Kinetics of the utilization of medium and long chain fatty acids by mutant of Escherichia coli defective in the fadL gene [3].
  • We demonstrated repression of fadL transcription and activation of fabA transcription in vitro using run-off transcription assays containing purified FadR and RNA polymerase [4].
  • The promoter and untranslated leader within fadL had two binding sites for FadR, OL1 at -25 to -9 and OL2 at -1 to +16 relative to the start of transcription [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of fadL

  • The genes for 1,2-propanediol degradation (pdu) and B12 synthesis (cob), along with the genes for sulfur reduction (ttr, phs, and asr), constitute more than 1% of the Salmonella genome and are all absent from E. coli [5].

Biological context of fadL


Other interactions of fadL

  • It was found that mutational alterations at two loci, ompF (encoding the outer membrane protein OmpF) and ttr (T-two resistance), are needed to give full resistance to phage T2 [1].
  • Similarly, E. coli fadR mutants were used alone and in conjunction with fadA, fadB, and fadL mutants to show that the effect of the fadR mutation is dependent on fadB+ and fadA+ gene products [8].
  • As expected, fadL-phoA fusions were unable to grow on oleate plates because the outer membrane-bound fatty acid transport protein FadL was defective [9].


  1. New locus (ttr) in Escherichia coli K-12 affecting sensitivity to bacteriophage T2 and growth on oleate as the sole carbon source. Morona, R., Henning, U. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Linker mutagenesis of a bacterial fatty acid transport protein. Identification of domains with functional importance. Kumar, G.B., Black, P.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Kinetics of the utilization of medium and long chain fatty acids by mutant of Escherichia coli defective in the fadL gene. Nunn, W.D., Simons, R.W., Egan, P.A., Maloy, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of transcription of genes required for fatty acid transport and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by FadR. DiRusso, C.C., Metzger, A.K., Heimert, T.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The alternative electron acceptor tetrathionate supports B12-dependent anaerobic growth of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium on ethanolamine or 1,2-propanediol. Price-Carter, M., Tingey, J., Bobik, T.A., Roth, J.R. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequencing and expression of the fadL gene involved in long-chain fatty acid transport in Escherichia coli. Said, B., Ghosn, C.R., Vu, L., Nunn, W.D. Mol. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Osmoregulation of the fatty acid receptor gene fadL in Escherichia coli. Higashitani, A., Nishimura, Y., Hara, H., Aiba, H., Mizuno, T., Horiuchi, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of fadR and atoC(Con) mutations in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthesis in recombinant pha+ Escherichia coli. Rhie, H.G., Dennis, D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of transposon TnphoA to identify genes for cell envelope proteins of Escherichia coli required for long-chain fatty acid transport: the periplasmic protein Tsp potentiates long-chain fatty acid transport. Azizan, A., Black, P.N. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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