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Gene Review

ompF  -  outer membrane porin 1a (Ia;b;F)

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0920, JW0912, cmlB, coa, cry, ...
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Disease relevance of ompF


High impact information on ompF

  • A naturally occurring small RNA molecule ( micF RNA), complementary to the region encompassing the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and initiation codon of the ompF mRNA, is known to block the expression of that mRNA in E. coli [4].
  • A plasmid was constructed in which the structural gene for human beta-endorphin is preceded by the upstream region of the ompF gene consisting of the promoter region and the coding regions for the signal peptide and the N terminus of the OmpF protein [5].
  • Phosphorylation of OmpR by the osmosensor EnvZ modulates expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli [6].
  • Two different sequence motifs were found to be protected by OmpR in both the ompF and ompC promoter regions [7].
  • Previously, the transfer of the phosphoryl group between the EnvZ and OmpR proteins, which are involved in activation of the ompF and ompC genes in response to the medium osmolarity, has been demonstrated in vitro [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of ompF


Biological context of ompF

  • The promoter region and the transcription termination region of the ompF gene had a significantly high AT content, while the AT content of the coding region was about the same as the average AT content of the E. coli chromosome [1].
  • The nucleotide sequence of the ompF gene coding for a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12 has been determined and the amino acid sequence of the OmpF protein was deduced from it [1].
  • Furthermore, we have determined that, although the OmpR activation site is not sufficient, OmpR is probably essential for ompF osmoregulation [11].
  • Characterization of these deletion strains showed that both OmpR and EnvZ were necessary for transcription of ompF and ompC and that neither gene was essential for cell viability [12].
  • SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that cell envelopes of staA or staA+ strains contained similar amounts of these proteins but characterization of strains carrying ompF (or C or A)-phoA gene fusions showed that mutation stA-2 reduced ompF gene expression by a factor of two [13].

Anatomical context of ompF


Associations of ompF with chemical compounds

  • The phosphoryl group on EnvZ* could then be rapidly transferred to OmpR, which is a positive regulator of the ompF and ompC genes and which was proposed to interact with EnvZ in the process of osmoregulation [9].
  • In vivo binding of the OmpR protein to the ompF and ompC promoter regions was observed using an in vivo dimethyl sulfate DNA footprinting technique [7].
  • In this study, we used a combination of DNase I, dimethyl sulfate and hydroxyl radical footprinting analysis and DNA migration retardation assays to identify the bases within the ompF regulatory region that are in contact with OmpR [15].
  • We also show that the soluble extracts from the envZ22(Am) strain grown in nutrient broth did not produce detectable bound forms of the ompF fragments, but low levels of DNA binding were detected with soluble extracts of the envZ22 strain grown in nutrient broth plus sucrose [16].
  • When these aspartic acid residues were replaced with asparagine (D11N) or glutamine (D12Q and D55Q), ompF and ompC expression was almost completely blocked [14].

Regulatory relationships of ompF

  • The ompF gene codes for a major outer membrane protein whose expression is positively regulated by the ompR and envZ genes [17].
  • When micF was cloned into a high-copy-number plasmid it repressed ompF gene expression, whereas when cloned into a low-copy-number plasmid it did not [18].
  • These results provide evidence that envZ function influences the DNA-binding activity of OmpR and suggest that high-affinity binding of OmpR to the upstream sequences of ompF is correlated with the repression of OmpF production [16].

Other interactions of ompF

  • The two-component regulatory system, OmpR and EnvZ, in Escherichia coli controls the differential expression of ompF and ompC in response to medium osmolarity [19].
  • We have constructed a series of ompF-lacZ fusions containing different regions of ompF to determine sites involved with osmoregulation [11].
  • Surprisingly, the expression of ompF under the lpp promoter was still osmoregulated not only in the ompB+ strain but also in two ompB strains tested [20].
  • The addition of the local anesthetic procaine to wild-type strains also causes a pleiotropic decrease in the expression of genes ompF, lamB, and phoA [21].
  • The mutation leading to the loss of protein Ib in these strains is independent of the tolF mutation and is located near malP on the E. coli genetic map [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ompF


  1. Primary structure of the ompF gene that codes for a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Inokuchi, K., Mutoh, N., Matsuyama, S., Mizushima, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification, mapping, cloning and characterization of a gene (sbmA) required for microcin B17 action on Escherichia coli K12. Laviña, M., Pugsley, A.P., Moreno, F. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Rapid detection by a coagglutination test of heat-labile enterotoxin in cell lysates from blood agar-grown Escherichia coli. Rönnberg, B., Wadström, T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. The use of RNAs complementary to specific mRNAs to regulate the expression of individual bacterial genes. Coleman, J., Green, P.J., Inouye, M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Secretion into the culture medium of a foreign gene product from Escherichia coli: use of the ompF gene for secretion of human beta-endorphin. Nagahari, K., Kanaya, S., Munakata, K., Aoyagi, Y., Mizushima, S. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Phosphorylation of OmpR by the osmosensor EnvZ modulates expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli. Forst, S., Delgado, J., Inouye, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of the DNA-binding domain of the OmpR protein required for transcriptional activation of the ompF and ompC genes of Escherichia coli by in vivo DNA footprinting. Tsung, K., Brissette, R.E., Inouye, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for the physiological importance of the phosphotransfer between the two regulatory components, EnvZ and OmpR, in osmoregulation in Escherichia coli. Aiba, H., Nakasai, F., Mizushima, S., Mizuno, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Transfer of phosphoryl group between two regulatory proteins involved in osmoregulatory expression of the ompF and ompC genes in Escherichia coli. Aiba, H., Mizuno, T., Mizushima, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Salicylate inhibits the translation and transcription of ompF in Escherichia coli. Ramani, N., Boakye, K. Can. J. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. cis-acting sites required for osmoregulation of ompF expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Ostrow, K.S., Silhavy, T.J., Garrett, S. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of delta ompB strains of Escherichia coli by a general method based on gene fusions. Garrett, S., Taylor, R.K., Silhavy, T.J., Berman, M.L. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of extragenic suppressor mutants of the tolA-876 periplasmic-leaky allele in Escherichia coli K-12. Amouroux, C., Lazzaroni, J.C., Portalier, R. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Suppression of a mutation in OmpR at the putative phosphorylation center by a mutant EnvZ protein in Escherichia coli. Brissette, R.E., Tsung, K.L., Inouye, M. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of the bases in the ompF regulatory region, which interact with the transcription factor OmpR. Huang, K.J., Igo, M.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. DNA-binding properties of the transcription activator (OmpR) for the upstream sequences of ompF in Escherichia coli are altered by envZ mutations and medium osmolarity. Forst, S.A., Delgado, J., Inouye, M. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization by deletion mutagenesis in vitro of the promoter region of ompF, a positively regulated gene of Escherichia coli. Inokuchi, K., Furukawa, H., Nakamura, K., Mizushima, S. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Construction and characterization of a deletion mutant lacking micF, a proposed regulatory gene for OmpF synthesis in Escherichia coli. Matsuyama, S., Mizushima, S. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic analysis of the switch that controls porin gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Slauch, J.M., Silhavy, T.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Uncoupling of osmoregulation of the Escherichia coli K-12 ompF gene from ompB-dependent transcription. Ramakrishnan, G., Ikenaka, K., Inouye, M. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation and characterization of chain-terminating nonsense mutations in a porin regulator gene, envZ. Garrett, S., Taylor, R.K., Silhavy, T.J. J. Bacteriol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Escherichia coli K-12 tolF mutants: alterations in protein composition of the outer membrane. Chai, T.J., Foulds, J. J. Bacteriol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Porins of Vibrio cholerae: purification and characterization of OmpU. Chakrabarti, S.R., Chaudhuri, K., Sen, K., Das, J. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. OmpF changes and the complexity of Escherichia coli adaptation to prolonged lactose limitation. Zhang, E., Ferenci, T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
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