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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Free Association

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Psychiatry related information on Free Association

  • Three groups of 10 young normal male subjects were injected with D-[18F]deoxyglucose (FDG) during either wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM), or non-REM (NONREM) sleep, and 32 to 45 minutes later they were asked to report their thoughts, emotions, or dreams and free-associations to these mental events [1].

High impact information on Free Association

  • Solution structure of the C-terminal domain of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor and ligand free associations among components of the CNTF receptor complex [2].
  • Using microcalorimetry, we follow changes in the association free energy of beta-cyclodextrin (CD) with the hydrophobic part of adamantane carboxylate (AD) due to added salt or polar (net-neutral) solutes that are excluded from the molecular interacting surfaces [3].
  • Brownian dynamics simulations of yeast and muscle aldolase and GAPDH with yeast and muscle actin compared the relative association free energy [4].
  • The peptide was in a monomer-antiparallel dimer equilibrium with an association free energy of approximately -13 kJ/mol [5].
  • These effects are hypothesized to arise largely from an increase in the VH/VL association free energy that leads to tighter coupling between domain-domain association and folding [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Free Association

  • No evidence of explicit memory for the word list was demonstrated by patients on tests of free recall, cued recall, or recognition, nor did a free-association test of implicit memory demonstrate a significant priming effect, in contrast to previous results obtained with isoflurane [7].
  • During the 55 sessions of free associations (volunteers plus patients) there were 32 surges of cortisol, 18 of prolactin and 28 of GH [8].
  • We find that the m-values for the rate of change of two-methane association free energy with respect to urea concentration is a dramatically nonmonotonic function of the spatial separation between the two methanes, with a distance-dependent profile similar to the corresponding two-methane heat capacity of association in pure water [9].
  • Twenty hypertensive outpatients WHO stage I or II, with supine diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg at the end of a 4-week treatment period with atenolol (Tenormin) 100 mg daily, continued atenolol in free association with half a tablet of Moduretic (i.e., hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg + amiloride 2.5 mg) for a further 4 weeks [10].

Gene context of Free Association

  • The association constant of 1.4 X 10(8) M-1 corresponds to the association free energy of -11.1 kcal/mol [11].
  • Using the technique of free association in an experimental setting, this author and colleagues previously found differences in the quality of memory traces involved in the production of REM and sleep onset (SO) dreams [12].
  • The cooperative term, which amounts to only about 10% of the total hydrophobic association free energy, was found to increase the strength of hydrophobic association; this finding differs from the results of earlier Monte Carlo studies with the free energy perturbation method of Rank and Baker (1997) [13].
  • It was also hypothesized that by limiting the focus of the Dream Seminar to the manifest dream content, the images and internal sequences of the dream, and by not allowing free association, the connective unconscious of the group would be brought into the open and balance the more conventional therapies of the rest of the program [14].
  • The present study reports the results of a correlational analysis between a PSE generated stress indicator (blocking pattern mode III) and the Gottschalk-Gleser Free Association Test, a verbal content-analysis measure of anxiety and hostility in psychotherapy patients [15].


  1. The relationship between social alienation and disorganized thinking in normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography. Gottschalk, L.A., Fronczek, J., Abel, L., Buchsbaum, M.S. Comprehensive psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Solution structure of the C-terminal domain of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor and ligand free associations among components of the CNTF receptor complex. Man, D., He, W., Sze, K.H., Gong, K., Smith, D.K., Zhu, G., Ip, N.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Solutes probe hydration in specific association of cyclodextrin and adamantane. Harries, D., Rau, D.C., Parsegian, V.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Glycolytic enzyme interactions with yeast and skeletal muscle F-actin. Waingeh, V.F., Gustafson, C.D., Kozliak, E.I., Lowe, S.L., Knull, H.R., Thomasson, K.A. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Topological stability and self-association of a completely hydrophobic model transmembrane helix in lipid bilayers. Yano, Y., Takemoto, T., Kobayashi, S., Yasui, H., Sakurai, H., Ohashi, W., Niwa, M., Futaki, S., Sugiura, Y., Matsuzaki, K. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Contributions of a highly conserved VH/VL hydrogen bonding interaction to scFv folding stability and refolding efficiency. Tan, P.H., Sandmaier, B.M., Stayton, P.S. Biophys. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Absence of explicit or implicit memory in patients anesthetized with sufentanil/nitrous oxide. Cork, R.C., Kihlstrom, J.F., Schacter, D.L. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and neurovegetative responses to emotions elicited during an hypnoidal state. Sobrinho, L.G., Simões, M., Barbosa, L., Raposo, J.F., Pratas, S., Fernandes, P.L., Santos, M.A. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Origins of protein denatured state compactness and hydrophobic clustering in aqueous urea: inferences from nonpolar potentials of mean force. Shimizu, S., Chan, H.S. Proteins (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of hydrochlorothiazide combined with amiloride in atenolol-resistant hypertensive patients. Corea, L., Bentivoglio, M., Verdecchia, P. International journal of clinical pharmacology research. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Interactions among red cell membrane proteins. Podgorski, A., Alster, P., Elbaum, D. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Dream sources, associative mechanisms, and temporal dimension. Cavallero, C. Sleep. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular simulation study of cooperativity in hydrophobic association. Czaplewski, C., Rodziewicz-Motowidło, S., Liwo, A., Ripoll, D.R., Wawak, R.J., Scheraga, H.A. Protein Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Dream seminar for chronic schizophrenic patients. Wilmer, H.A. Psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. The Psychological Stress Evaluator as a clinical assessment instrument. Evaluation and implications. Grantham, C.E., Pearl, M.H., Manderscheid, R.W., Silbergeld, S. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. (1981) [Pubmed]
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