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Chemical Compound Review

Esidrex     4-chloro-10,10-dioxo- 10$l^{6}-thia-7,9...

Synonyms: Esidrix, Oretic, Sectrazide, HydroDIURIL, HCTZ, ...
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Disease relevance of Esidrex


Psychiatry related information on Esidrex

  • In conclusion, zofenopril/HCTZ 30/12.5 mg/day provides more optimal BP control in a larger proportion of patients than would be achievable with monotherapy, while maintaining the tolerability profile observed with each individual agent, and thereby potentially enhancing patient compliance [4].
  • There were more withdrawals mainly due to side effects and non-compliance in the captopril plus HCTZ group as compared to the perceived best therapy group [5].
  • Influence of hydrochlorothiazide on the pain threshold and on the antinociceptive activity of morphine, in rats [6].
  • Compared with placebo, hydrochlorothiazide was associated with fewer incorrect responses in a test of complex reaction time and with greater discriminant reaction time response rates; otherwise, no difference between groups was noted in cognitive or motor performance [7].
  • A 46-year-old Caucasian male USAF aviator with a 6-year history of mild essential hypertension (medical waiver for flight duty) under unsuccessful treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, dietary modification, and exercise, was subsequently trained in yoga relaxation [8].

High impact information on Esidrex


Chemical compound and disease context of Esidrex


Biological context of Esidrex

  • Fourth, experiments addressing the time-dependent effect of a single dose of HCTZ showed that the development of hypocalciuria parallels a compensatory increase in Na+ reabsorption secondary to an initial natriuresis [18].
  • Hypomagnesemia developed during chronic HCTZ administration and in NCC-knockout mice, an animal model of Gitelman syndrome, accompanied by downregulation of the epithelial Mg2+ channel transient receptor potential channel subfamily M, member 6 (Trpm6) [18].
  • Methaemoglobinaemia after inhalation of nitric oxide for treatment of hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary oedema [19].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In healthy older adults, low-dose hydrochlorothiazide preserves bone mineral density at the hip and spine [20].
  • The experiments presented here support the hypothesis of a direct involvement of the intestinal cells in the interaction between HCTZ and NaCl, as well as calcium homeostasis [21].

Anatomical context of Esidrex


Associations of Esidrex with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Esidrex

  • Second, HCTZ administration still induced hypocalciuria in transient receptor potential channel subfamily V, member 5-knockout (Trpv5-knockout) mice, in which active distal Ca2+ reabsorption is abolished due to inactivation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel Trpv5 [18].
  • Thus, hOAT4 is the long-postulated, low-affinity apical urate anion exchanger that facilitates HCTZ-associated hyperuricemia [29].
  • There were no differences in blood pressure (BP) levels between HSD11B2 genotypes, but in a subgroup of 91 patients that underwent diuretic therapy, CA repeat length was strongly associated with the BP response to hydrochlorothiazide [30].
  • Hydralazine/hydrochlorothiazide normalized systolic blood pressure (BP) and abolished mRNA up-regulation of hypertrophic markers sk-alpha-actin and BNP and of preproAM, CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 but did not normalize cardiomyocyte width nor preproIMD or RAMP1 mRNA expression [31].
  • Hydrochlorothiazide efficacy and polymorphisms in ACE, ADD1 and GNB3 in healthy, male volunteers [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Esidrex


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  6. Influence of hydrochlorothiazide on the pain threshold and on the antinociceptive activity of morphine, in rats. Poggioli, R., Vergoni, A.V., Bertolini, A. Experientia (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, and propranolol on quality of life and cognitive and motor function in hypertensive patients. McCorvey, E., Wright, J.T., Culbert, J.P., McKenney, J.M., Proctor, J.D., Annett, M.P. Clinical pharmacy. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of essential hypertension with yoga relaxation therapy in a USAF aviator: a case report. Brownstein, A.H., Dembert, M.L. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men. A comparison of captopril with enalapril. The Quality-of-Life Hypertension Study Group. Testa, M.A., Anderson, R.B., Nackley, J.F., Hollenberg, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on the quality of life. Croog, S.H., Levine, S., Testa, M.A., Brown, B., Bulpitt, C.J., Jenkins, C.D., Klerman, G.L., Williams, G.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Final outcome results of the Multicenter Isradipine Diuretic Atherosclerosis Study (MIDAS). A randomized controlled trial. Borhani, N.O., Mercuri, M., Borhani, P.A., Buckalew, V.M., Canossa-Terris, M., Carr, A.A., Kappagoda, T., Rocco, M.V., Schnaper, H.W., Sowers, J.R., Bond, M.G. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Cross-reactions among furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, and sulfonamides. Sullivan, T.J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Systolic hypertension in the elderly. Hemodynamic response to long-term thiazide diuretic therapy and its side effects. Vardan, S., Mookherjee, S., Warner, R., Smulyan, H. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Furosemide compared with hydrochlorothiazide. Long-term treatment of hypertension. Araoye, M.A., Chang, M.Y., Khatri, I.M., Freis, E.D. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Captopril versus hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene in mild-to-moderate hypertension in the elderly. Woo, J., Woo, K.S., Vallance-Owen, J. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Letter: Timolol, hydrochlorothiazide, blood-pressure, and renin in essential hypertension. Fyhrquist, F., Kurppa, K., Kannas, M. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of timolol plus hydrochlorothiazide plus hydralazine on essential hypertension. Aronow, W.S., Van Herick, R., Greenfield, R., Alimadadian, H., Burwell, D., Mann, W. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Enhanced passive Ca2+ reabsorption and reduced Mg2+ channel abundance explains thiazide-induced hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. Nijenhuis, T., Vallon, V., van der Kemp, A.W., Loffing, J., Hoenderop, J.G., Bindels, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Methaemoglobinaemia after inhalation of nitric oxide for treatment of hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary oedema. Hovenga, S., Koenders, M.E., van der Werf, T.S., Moshage, H., Zijlstra, J.G. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Low-dose hydrochlorothiazide and preservation of bone mineral density in older adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. LaCroix, A.Z., Ott, S.M., Ichikawa, L., Scholes, D., Barlow, W.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Thiazide-sensitive NaCl-cotransporter in the intestine: possible role of hydrochlorothiazide in the intestinal Ca2+ uptake. Bazzini, C., Vezzoli, V., Sironi, C., Dossena, S., Ravasio, A., De Biasi, S., Garavaglia, M., Rodighiero, S., Meyer, G., Fascio, U., Fürst, J., Ritter, M., Bottà, G., Paulmichl, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Prevention of the glucose intolerance of thiazide diuretics by maintenance of body potassium. Helderman, J.H., Elahi, D., Andersen, D.K., Raizes, G.S., Tobin, J.D., Shocken, D., Andres, R. Diabetes (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Thiazide diuretics affect osteocalcin production in human osteoblasts at the transcription level without affecting vitamin D3 receptors. Lajeunesse, D., Delalandre, A., Guggino, S.E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of effects of enalapril plus hydrochlorothiazide versus standard triple therapy on renal function in renovascular hypertension. Franklin, S.S., Smith, R.D. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. An assessment of diltiazem and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertension. Application of factorial trial design to a multicenter clinical trial of combination therapy. Burris, J.F., Weir, M.R., Oparil, S., Weber, M., Cady, W.J., Stewart, W.H. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Ticrynafen and hydrochlorothiazide. A double-blind study of antihypertensive properties with an open crossover. Miller, S.A., Vertes, V. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of timolol and hydrochlorothiazide on blood-pressure and plasma renin activity. Double-blind factorial trial. Chalmers, J., Tiller, D., Horvath, J., Bune, A. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Beneficial effects of eplerenone versus hydrochlorothiazide on coronary circulatory function in patients with diabetes mellitus. Joffe, H.V., Kwong, R.Y., Gerhard-Herman, M.D., Rice, C., Feldman, K., Adler, G.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Human renal organic anion transporter 4 operates as an asymmetric urate transporter. Hagos, Y., Stein, D., Ugele, B., Burckhardt, G., Bahn, A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of HSD11B2 polymorphisms in essential hypertension and the diuretic response to thiazides. Williams, T.A., Mulatero, P., Filigheddu, F., Troffa, C., Milan, A., Argiolas, G., Parpaglia, P.P., Veglio, F., Glorioso, N. Kidney Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential expression of components of the cardiomyocyte adrenomedullin/intermedin receptor system following blood pressure reduction in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension. Zhao, Y., Bell, D., Smith, L.R., Zhao, L., Devine, A.B., McHenry, E.M., Nicholls, D.P., McDermott, B.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Hydrochlorothiazide efficacy and polymorphisms in ACE, ADD1 and GNB3 in healthy, male volunteers. Vormfelde, S.V., Sehrt, D., Bolte, D., Pahl, S., Tzvetkov, M., Brockmöller, J. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Treadmill exercise testing in hypertensive patients treated with hydrochlorothiazide and beta-blocking drugs. Miller, A.J., Kaplan, B.M., Upton, M.T., Grais, I.M., Abrams, D.L. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Efficacy of cilazapril compared with hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Multicentre Study Group. Morgan, T.O. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
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