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Chemical Compound Review

Tenormin     2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(propan-2...

Synonyms: Atcardil, Atehexal, Atenolin, Atenomel, atenolol, ...
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Disease relevance of atenolol


Psychiatry related information on atenolol


High impact information on atenolol


Chemical compound and disease context of atenolol


Biological context of atenolol


Anatomical context of atenolol

  • In-vitro studies have shown that atenolol, a beta-blocking agent, is stereoselectively taken up by and released from adrenergic nerve endings by membrane depolarisation [20].
  • After beta 1-adrenergic receptor blockade by atenolol (1 mg/kg), isoproterenol-induced increases in CD were abolished either when CBFv was kept constant or after endothelium removal [21].
  • To determine the functional impact of the caveolar-localized beta(2)-AR/Ca(v)1.2 signaling complex, beta(2)-AR stimulation (salbutamol plus atenolol) of I(Ca,L) was examined in pertussis toxin-treated neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes [22].
  • Capillary/fiber ratio in vastus lateralis muscle biopsy specimens increased 31 +/- 6% in the placebo group and 21 +/- 6% in the atenolol group (both p less than .05) and tended to increase in the nadolol group [23].
  • Sotalol, atenolol and procainamide in concentrations up to 400 mumol/L did not produce any ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes after 24 hr of incubation [24].

Associations of atenolol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of atenolol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of atenolol

  • Atenolol did not produce a reduction in the left-ventricular-mass index (109 +/- 9 g per square meter before treatment vs. 112 +/- 10 g per square meter after treatment) [1].
  • Atenolol was given intravenously before and immediately after surgery and orally thereafter for the duration of hospitalization [2].
  • Combined cardiovascular outcomes were similarly reduced among the atenolol-treated patients; event-free survival throughout the two-year study period was 68 percent in the placebo group and 83 percent in the atenolol group (P=0.008) [2].
  • 214 patients were studied in a randomised trial to determine whether administraiton of intravenous atenolol within 12 hours of chest pain reduced eventual infarct size, as estimated by cumulative enzyme release and by ECG changes [4].
  • Dose titration was by dose doubling, and addition of atenolol 25-50 mg or enalapril 5-10 mg [33].


  1. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on left ventricular mass in elderly patients. Schulman, S.P., Weiss, J.L., Becker, L.C., Gottlieb, S.O., Woodruff, K.M., Weisfeldt, M.L., Gerstenblith, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. Mangano, D.T., Layug, E.L., Wallace, A., Tateo, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Principal results of the Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular End Points (CONVINCE) trial. Black, H.R., Elliott, W.J., Grandits, G., Grambsch, P., Lucente, T., White, W.B., Neaton, J.D., Grimm, R.H., Hansson, L., Lacourciere, Y., Muller, J., Sleight, P., Weber, M.A., Williams, G., Wittes, J., Zanchetti, A., Anders, R.J. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Early intravenous atenolol treatment in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Preliminary report of a randomised trial. Yusuf, S., Ramsdale, D., Peto, R., Furse, L., Bennett, D., Bray, C., Sleight, P. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lindholm, L.H., Ibsen, H., Dahlöf, B., Devereux, R.B., Beevers, G., de Faire, U., Fyhrquist, F., Julius, S., Kjeldsen, S.E., Kristiansson, K., Lederballe-Pedersen, O., Nieminen, M.S., Omvik, P., Oparil, S., Wedel, H., Aurup, P., Edelman, J., Snapinn, S. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Randomized clinical trial of atenolol in patients with alcohol withdrawal. Kraus, M.L., Gottlieb, L.D., Horwitz, R.I., Anscher, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Phenelzine vs atenolol in social phobia. A placebo-controlled comparison. Liebowitz, M.R., Schneier, F., Campeas, R., Hollander, E., Hatterer, J., Fyer, A., Gorman, J., Papp, L., Davies, S., Gully, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Atenolol in seasonal affective disorder: a test of the melatonin hypothesis. Rosenthal, N.E., Jacobsen, F.M., Sack, D.A., Arendt, J., James, S.P., Parry, B.L., Wehr, T.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Report of erectile dysfunction after therapy with beta-blockers is related to patient knowledge of side effects and is reversed by placebo. Silvestri, A., Galetta, P., Cerquetani, E., Marazzi, G., Patrizi, R., Fini, M., Rosano, G.M. Eur. Heart J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Drug therapy: atenolol and timolol, two new systemic beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Frishman, W.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Letter: Atenolol and renin release. Sassard, J., Pozet, N., Vincent, M., Zech, P.Y. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of losartan on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: a Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction (LIFE) substudy. Kjeldsen, S.E., Dahlöf, B., Devereux, R.B., Julius, S., Aurup, P., Edelman, J., Beevers, G., de Faire, U., Fyhrquist, F., Ibsen, H., Kristianson, K., Lederballe-Pedersen, O., Lindholm, L.H., Nieminen, M.S., Omvik, P., Oparil, S., Snapinn, S., Wedel, H. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Metoprolol or atenolol for mild-to-moderate hypertension. Lyngstam, O., Rydén, L. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Enalapril, atenolol, and hydrochlorothiazide in mild to moderate hypertension. A comparative multicentre study in general practice in Norway. Helgeland, A., Strømmen, R., Hagelund, C.H., Tretli, S. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduction of stress/catecholamine-induced cardiac necrosis by beta 1-selective blockade. Cruickshank, J.M., Neil-Dwyer, G., Degaute, J.P., Hayes, Y., Kuurne, T., Kytta, J., Vincent, J.L., Carruthers, M.E., Patel, S. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Pharmacologic and nutritional treatment of mild hypertension: changes in cardiovascular risk status. Oberman, A., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Langford, H.G., Blaufox, M.D., Davis, B.R., Blaszkowski, T., Zimbaldi, N., Hawkins, C.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of treatment of isolated systolic hypertension on left ventricular mass. Ofili, E.O., Cohen, J.D., St Vrain, J.A., Pearson, A., Martin, T.J., Uy, N.D., Castello, R., Labovitz, A.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Atenolol: once-daily cardioselective beta blockade for angina pectoris. Jackson, G., Schwartz, J., Kates, R.E., Winchester, M., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of atenolol on left ventricular function in hypertensive patients. Ibrahim, M.M., Madkour, M.A., Mossallam, R. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Stereoselective release of (S)-atenolol from adrenergic nerve endings at exercise. Stoschitzky, K., Lindner, W., Klein, W. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Endothelial modulation of beta-adrenergic dilation of large coronary arteries in conscious dogs. Ghaleh, B., Béa, M.L., Dubois-Randé, J.L., Giudicelli, J.F., Hittinger, L., Berdeaux, A. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Localization of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels to a caveolar macromolecular signaling complex is required for beta(2)-adrenergic regulation. Balijepalli, R.C., Foell, J.D., Hall, D.D., Hell, J.W., Kamp, T.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of selective and nonselective beta-adrenergic blockade on mechanisms of exercise conditioning. Wolfel, E.E., Hiatt, W.R., Brammell, H.L., Carry, M.R., Ringel, S.P., Travis, V., Horwitz, L.D. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytotoxic interactions of cardioactive cationic amphiphilic compounds in primary rat hepatocytes in culture. Bandyopadhyay, S., Klaunig, J.E., Somani, P. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, atenolol, labetalol, and pindolol in hypertension complicated by intermittent claudication. Roberts, D.H., Tsao, Y., McLoughlin, G.A., Breckenridge, A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Trial of heparin versus atenolol in prevention of myocardial infarction in intermediate coronary syndrome. Telford, A.M., Wilson, C. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol and atenolol in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension. A randomized, controlled trial. Giugliano, D., Acampora, R., Marfella, R., De Rosa, N., Ziccardi, P., Ragone, R., De Angelis, L., D'Onofrio, F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor modulation of sympathetic neurotransmission in human atria. Rump, L.C., Schwertfeger, E., Schaible, U., Fraedrich, G., Schollmeyer, P. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Atenolol enhances nocturnal growth hormone (GH) release in GH-deficient children during long term GH-releasing hormone therapy. Martha, P.M., Blizzard, R.M., Thorner, M.O., Rogol, A.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene are related to change in left ventricular mass during antihypertensive treatment: results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation versus Atenolol (SILVHIA) trial. Kurland, L., Melhus, H., Karlsson, J., Kahan, T., Malmqvist, K., Ohman, P., Nyström, F., Hägg, A., Lind, L. J. Hypertens. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. The CYP2C9 genotype predicts the blood pressure response to irbesartan: results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA) trial. Hallberg, P., Karlsson, J., Kurland, L., Lind, L., Kahan, T., Malmqvist, K., Ohman, K.P., Nyström, F., Melhus, H. J. Hypertens. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. NNK activates ERK1/2 and CREB/ATF-1 via beta-1-AR and EGFR signaling in human lung adenocarcinoma and small airway epithelial cells. E, L., M, M., M, C., T, M., T, T., H M, S. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a long-acting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). Brown, M.J., Palmer, C.R., Castaigne, A., de Leeuw, P.W., Mancia, G., Rosenthal, T., Ruilope, L.M. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
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