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MeSH Review

Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology)

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Disease relevance of Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology)

  • This paper reviewed the literature on the evidence for water fluoridation's effectiveness under current conditions of multiple fluoride use at recommended and at reduced concentrations, the extent of dental fluorosis at different fluoride concentrations, and the "halo" effect of water fluoridation [1].

High impact information on Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology)

  • Other contributing factors were the addition in 1972 of the umbilical (as well as anterior nares) site for culturing, potentially doubling the S. aureus retrieval; the use, beginning in 1972, of an HCP-inhibiting medium for staphylococcal culturing; and probably the presence in previous years of the Hawthorne effect [2].
  • One moderator variable showed itself: correlations between HR and DBP reactions were larger in studies with older than younger subjects [3].
  • Previous studies have described a "halo-effect" that surrounds DEW-line sites, whereby PCB signatures in soil and plants up to 10 km from source areas were attributed to the local source [4].
  • Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables [5].
  • The study suggests that, outside the Hawthorne effect, chlorhexidine rinses would be less effective in reducing plaque when used with toothpaste than when used alone [6].

Associations of Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology) with chemical compounds

  • The IGF delta relationship was minimally influenced by moderator variables such as thyroxine (T3, T4), and/or body mass index (BMI) [7].
  • Managing optimal fluoride therapy: the halo effect [8].
  • The results for both ketamine and TEE illustrate the classic "Hawthorne Effect," where the observed values are partly a function of the measurement process [9].
  • One possible explanation of this result is that the Hawthorne effect in the study was too great to allow the detection of a treatment benefit for the triclosan product [10].
  • Analysis of moderator variables revealed that the following study features could account for the variation of results across studies: heart rate--fitness, type of exercise, protocol and RPE mode; blood lactate concentration--sex, RPE scale; VO2--sex, exercise type, RPE mode; ventilation--sex, RPE mode; respiration rate--exercise protocol, RPE mode [11].

Gene context of Effect Modifiers (Epidemiology)

  • Elevated rates of ADHD behaviors were also observed in children with comorbid DBD, indicating that these behaviors are truly present and suggesting that reports of higher ADHD ratings in this subgroup are not simply a consequence of negative halo effects and rater biases [12].


  1. Water fluoridation: current effectiveness and dental fluorosis. Lewis, D.W., Banting, D.W. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in a newborn nursery from 1970 through 1976. Hargiss, C., Larson, E. Pediatrics (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiovascular and immune responses to acute psychological stress in young and old women: a meta-analysis. Benschop, R.J., Geenen, R., Mills, P.J., Naliboff, B.D., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Herbert, T.B., van der Pompe, G., Miller, G.E., Matthews, K.A., Godaert, G.L., Gilmore, S.L., Glaser, R., Heijnen, C.J., Dopp, J.M., Bijlsma, J.W., Solomon, G.F., Cacioppo, J.T. Psychosomatic medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. The relative influence of distant and local (DEW-line) PCB sources in the Canadian Arctic. Stow, J.P., Sova, J., Reimer, K.J. Sci. Total Environ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables. Wiens, A.N., Fuller, K.H., Crossen, J.R. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. A short-term clinical study design to investigate the chemical plaque inhibitory properties of mouthrinses when used as adjuncts to toothpastes: applied to chlorhexidine. Owens, J., Addy, M., Faulkner, J., Lockwood, C., Adair, R. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Higher plasma IGF-1 levels are associated with increased delta sleep in healthy older men. Prinz, P.N., Moe, K.E., Dulberg, E.M., Larsen, L.H., Vitiello, M.V., Toivola, B., Merriam, G.R. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Managing optimal fluoride therapy: the halo effect. Weesner, B.W. The Journal of the Tennessee Dental Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Left ventricular, systemic arterial, and baroreflex responses to ketamine and TEE in chronically instrumented monkeys. Koenig, S.C., Ludwig, D.A., Reister, C., Fanton, J.W., Ewert, D., Convertino, V.A. Comp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Experimental gingivitis studies: effects of triclosan and triclosan-containing dentifrices on dental plaque and gingivitis in three-week randomized controlled clinical trials. Lang, N.P., Sander, L., Barlow, A., Brennan, K., White, D.J., Bacca, L., Bartizek, R.D., McClanahan, S.F. The Journal of clinical dentistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. Chen, M.J., Fan, X., Moe, S.T. Journal of sports sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity. Abikoff, H.B., Jensen, P.S., Arnold, L.L., Hoza, B., Hechtman, L., Pollack, S., Martin, D., Alvir, J., March, J.S., Hinshaw, S., Vitiello, B., Newcorn, J., Greiner, A., Cantwell, D.P., Conners, C.K., Elliott, G., Greenhill, L.L., Kraemer, H., Pelham, W.E., Severe, J.B., Swanson, J.M., Wells, K., Wigal, T. Journal of abnormal child psychology. (2002) [Pubmed]
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