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Chemical Compound Review

chlorhexidine     2-[N'-[6-[[amino-[[amino- [(4...

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Disease relevance of chlorhexidine


Psychiatry related information on chlorhexidine


High impact information on chlorhexidine

  • When chlorhexidine was used, there were 152 nosocomial infections, as compared with 202 when the combination of alcohol and soap was used (adjusted incidence-density ratio [IDR], 0.73; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.90) [1].
  • Mean reductions (95% confidence intervals) with 10-, 30-, and 60-second washes with soap and water were 2.4 (2.2-2.5), 2.3 (2.2-2.4), and 2.1 (1.9-2.4) log(10) CFUs/mL, respectively; and with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2.1 (2.0-2.3), 1.8 (1.5-2.0), and 1.7 (1.5-1.9) log10 CFUs/mL, respectively [10].
  • Prevention of excess neonatal morbidity associated with group B streptococci by vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour. The Swedish Chlorhexidine Study Group [11].
  • The thyroid function of very-low-birthweight (VLBW; below 1500 g) infants admitted to neonatal intensive-care units was studied at two hospitals; one routinely used topical iodinated antiseptic agents and the other used chlorhexidine-containing antiseptics [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine catheter is well tolerated, reduces the incidence of catheter-related infection, extends the time that noncuffed central venous catheters can be safely left in place for the short term, and should allow cost savings [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of chlorhexidine


Biological context of chlorhexidine


Anatomical context of chlorhexidine

  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to the prestudy hypothesis that a chlorhexidine mouthwash might provide benefit for patients receiving radiation therapy to the oral mucosa, this study provides strong evidence suggesting that a chlorhexidine mouthwash is detrimental in this clinical situation [4].
  • However, the data suggest that lavage before the membranes are ruptured might be associated with a reduction of MTCT, especially with higher concentrations of chlorhexidine [20].
  • Unlike cationic detergents, such as chlorhexidine, they did not cause disruption of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane over a short time period [24].
  • Chlorhexidine Arrests Subclinical Degradation of Dentin Hybrid Layers in vivo [25].
  • Alexidine salts prevented the progressive increase in implanted S. mutans, whereas chlorhexidine acetate practically eliminated the micro-organism from the oral cavity [26].

Associations of chlorhexidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of chlorhexidine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chlorhexidine

  • Chlorhexidine kept the contents of all drainage bags sterile, but the frequency of urinary infection in the chlordexidine group (51%) did not differ significantly from that in the control group (45%) [34].
  • Further studies on disinfection of the surgeon's hands with 0-5% chlorhexidine in 95% alcohol rubbed on and allowed to dry have supported its value and acceptability; the mean bacterial counts of washings from gloves of surgeons after operations were lower after the use of this method than after other preoperative preparations of the hands [35].
  • The value of adding chlorhexidine to urine drainage bags of male patients treated with indwelling catheters after prostatectomy and other transurethral operations was assessed in a randomised, prospective, controlled was assessed in a randomised, prospective, controlled study [34].
  • Vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine during delivery did not show a global effect on MTCT in our study [20].
  • Local oral passive immunization with Streptococcus mutans-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) (Guy's 13) prevented recolonization by indigenous S. mutans in human volunteers who had first been treated with a conventional antibacterial agent (chlorhexidine) [36].


  1. Comparative efficacy of alternative hand-washing agents in reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units. Doebbeling, B.N., Stanley, G.L., Sheetz, C.T., Pfaller, M.A., Houston, A.K., Annis, L., Li, N., Wenzel, R.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of phenoxetol-chlorhexidine cream as a prophylactic antibacterial agent in burns. Lawrence, J.C., Cason, J.S., Kidson, A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Kampf, G., Kramer, A. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Randomized trial of a chlorhexidine mouthwash for alleviation of radiation-induced mucositis. Foote, R.L., Loprinzi, C.L., Frank, A.R., O'Fallon, J.R., Gulavita, S., Tewfik, H.H., Ryan, M.A., Earle, J.M., Novotny, P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro. Kampf, G., Höfer, M., Wendt, C. J. Hosp. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of a chlorhexidine and an essential oil mouthrinse: 6-month clinical trial. Charles, C.H., Mostler, K.M., Bartels, L.L., Mankodi, S.M. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Administration of chlorhexidine to persons with mental retardation residing in an institution: patient acceptance and staff compliance. Burtner, A.P., Smith, R.G., Tiefenbach, S., Walker, C. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Oral retention and discoloration tendency from a chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Solheim, H., Roksvaag, P., Eriksen, H.M., Nordbø, H. Acta Odontol. Scand. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate: a randomized controlled trial. Segers, P., Speekenbrink, R.G., Ubbink, D.T., van Ogtrop, M.L., de Mol, B.A. JAMA (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Efficacy of selected hand hygiene agents used to remove Bacillus atrophaeus (a surrogate of Bacillus anthracis) from contaminated hands. Weber, D.J., Sickbert-Bennett, E., Gergen, M.F., Rutala, W.A. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Prevention of excess neonatal morbidity associated with group B streptococci by vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour. The Swedish Chlorhexidine Study Group. Burman, L.G., Christensen, P., Christensen, K., Fryklund, B., Helgesson, A.M., Svenningsen, N.W., Tullus, K. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Topical iodine-containing antiseptics and neonatal hypothyroidism in very-low-birthweight infants. Smerdely, P., Lim, A., Boyages, S.C., Waite, K., Wu, D., Roberts, V., Leslie, G., Arnold, J., John, E., Eastman, C.J. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter. A randomized, controlled trial. Maki, D.G., Stolz, S.M., Wheeler, S., Mermel, L.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of triple-lumen central venous catheters coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia. Heard, S.O., Wagle, M., Vijayakumar, E., McLean, S., Brueggemann, A., Napolitano, L.M., Edwards, L.P., O'Connell, F.M., Puyana, J.C., Doern, G.V. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Sustained in vitro activity of human albumin microspheres containing chlorhexidine dihydrochloride against bacteria from cultures of organisms that cause urinary tract infections. Egbaria, K., Friedman, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Prospective randomized trial of 10% povidone-iodine versus 0.5% tincture of chlorhexidine as cutaneous antisepsis for prevention of central venous catheter infection. Humar, A., Ostromecki, A., Direnfeld, J., Marshall, J.C., Lazar, N., Houston, P.C., Boiteau, P., Conly, J.M. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of fluoride and chlorhexidine on the microflora of dental root surfaces and progression of root-surface caries. Schaeken, M.J., Keltjens, H.M., Van Der Hoeven, J.S. J. Dent. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. The inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by chlorhexidine ('Hibitane'). Richmond, S.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Vaginal chlorhexidine disinfection during labour. Feldman, R., van Oppen, C., Noorduyn, A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. Gaillard, P., Mwanyumba, F., Verhofstede, C., Claeys, P., Chohan, V., Goetghebeur, E., Mandaliya, K., Ndinya-Achola, J., Temmerman, M. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Oral decontamination with chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Koeman, M., van der Ven, A.J., Hak, E., Joore, H.C., Kaasjager, K., de Smet, A.G., Ramsay, G., Dormans, T.P., Aarts, L.P., de Bel, E.E., Hustinx, W.N., van der Tweel, I., Hoepelman, A.M., Bonten, M.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Experimental evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate for ocular antisepsis. Hamill, M.B., Osato, M.S., Wilhelmus, K.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Efficacy of antibiotic-coated catheters in preventing subcutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in rabbits. Sherertz, R.J., Carruth, W.A., Hampton, A.A., Byron, M.P., Solomon, D.D. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Cyclohexane triones, novel membrane-active antibacterial agents. Lloyd, W.J., Broadhurst, A.V., Hall, M.J., Andrews, K.J., Barber, W.E., Wong-Kai-In, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Chlorhexidine Arrests Subclinical Degradation of Dentin Hybrid Layers in vivo. Hebling, J., Pashley, D.H., Tjäderhane, L., Tay, F.R. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Cariostatic activity of (1,6-bis-[2-ethylhexylbiguanido]-hexane) in conventional rats. Curtis, S.N., Dooley, C.L. J. Dent. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Hand-washing degerming: a comparison of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine. Dineen, P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Silver iontophoretic catheter: a prototype of a long-term antiinfective vascular access device. Raad, I., Hachem, R., Zermeno, A., Stephens, L.C., Bodey, G.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Candida albicans Biofilms Produce Antifungal-Tolerant Persister Cells. Lafleur, M.D., Kumamoto, C.A., Lewis, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparative in vitro efficacies and antimicrobial durabilities of novel antimicrobial central venous catheters. Hanna, H., Bahna, P., Reitzel, R., Dvorak, T., Chaiban, G., Hachem, R., Raad, I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. The effect of subgingival controlled-release delivery of chlorhexidine chip on clinical parameters and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Azmak, N., Atilla, G., Luoto, H., Sorsa, T. J. Periodontol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficacy of mupirocin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus burn wound infection. Rode, H., Hanslo, D., de Wet, P.M., Millar, A.J., Cywes, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Do biocides select for antibiotic resistance? Russell, A.D. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Does the addition of disinfectant to urine drainage bags prevent infection in catheterised patients? Gillespie, W.A., Simpson, R.A., Jones, J.E., Nashef, L., Teasdale, C., Speller, D.C. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Gloved hand as applicator of antiseptic to operation sites. Lowbury, E.J., Lilly, H.A. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. An investigation into the mechanism of protection by local passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans. Ma, J.K., Hunjan, M., Smith, R., Kelly, C., Lehner, T. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
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