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Chemical Compound Review

lactate     2-hydroxypropanoate

Synonyms: b-lactate, AG-D-32891, CHEBI:24996, CTK4A8148, AR-1I0651, ...
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Disease relevance of lactic acid

  • The spontaneous resolution of the acidosis was due, in large part, to the metabolism of lactate and to the concomitant removal of hydrogen ion [1].
  • Stimulation of lactate production by administration of bicarbonate in a patient with a solid neoplasm and lactic acidosis [2].
  • At the time of a patient's hospital admission, an elevated plasma lactate concentration is a useful indicator of cyanide toxicity in fire victims who do not have severe burns [3].
  • The hypertensive patients with angina had a significant increase in myocardial oxygen extraction during pacing after ergonovine and less of an increase in myocardial lactate consumption - a response consistent with the presence of myocardial ischemia [4].
  • Dichloroacetate significantly reduced fasting hyperglycemia an average of 24 per cent (P less than 0.01) from base line and produced marked, concomitant falls in plasma lactate (73 per cent; P less than 0.05 to less than 0.01) and alanine (82 per cent; P less than 0.01 to less than 0.001) [5].

Psychiatry related information on lactic acid


High impact information on lactic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of lactic acid


Biological context of lactic acid

  • After six months, surgical patients achieved significantly higher exercise work loads (P less than 0.01), exercise heart rates (P less than 0.05), maximum paced heart rates (P less than 0.01) and myocardial lactate extraction (P less than 0.01) [19].
  • The rate of conversion of lactate to glucose (gluconeogenesis) decreased by 37 percent (P < 0.001), whereas lactate oxidation increased by 25 percent (P < 0.001) [20].
  • The increased serum anion gap was caused by hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia, with anionic contributions to the rise in anion gap estimated as protein, 5.5 meq per liter; lactate, 2.5 meq per liter; and phosphate, 2.5 meq per liter [21].
  • The phenotype of the new cell type is characterized by the synthesis of plasminogen activator, laminin and type IV collagen, and by very low levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase [22].
  • The metabolic effect of smoke inhalation was assessed by measuring plasma lactate at the time of admission to the hospital in 39 patients who did not have severe burns [3].

Anatomical context of lactic acid


Associations of lactic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of lactic acid

  • In a dose-dependent manner, PGE2 inhibits LPS-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not of lactate or nitric oxide [32].
  • However, MK-PTEN females could not lactate normally, and approximately 30% of pups died, with survivors exhibiting growth retardation [33].
  • Biochemical analysis indicated that the levels of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in ADR-treated mice were significantly greater in nontransgenic than their transgenic littermates expressing a high level of human MnSOD after ADR treatment [34].
  • In contrast, p27(-/-) mammary glands or wild-type mammary fat pads reconstituted with p27(-/-) epithelium produced the opposite phenotype: hypoplasia, low proliferation, decreased ductal branching, impaired lobuloalveolar differentiation, and inability to lactate [35].
  • In the parenchymal epithelia of kidney, thyroid, and liver, MCT/CD147 heterocomplexes are localized in the basolateral membrane where they transport lactate out of or into the cell depending on metabolic conditions [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lactic acid

  • The results were correlated with the patients' histologic features, age, disease stage, tumor sites and bulk of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and treatment outcome [37].
  • No patients with established shock states in whom perfusion failure was associated with substantial increases in the level of arterial blood lactate survived regardless of treatment with dopamine [38].
  • Heart rate was measured during the last minute of each stage of the exercise test, and blood lactate levels were obtained immediately after each exercise stage [39].
  • In 24 animals in whom resuscitation efforts failed, arterial lactate concentrations increased throughout the observation period [40].
  • None of the 26 patients suspected to have cholera received appropriate fluids; severely dehydrated patients did not receive Ringer's lactate solution and those not severely dehydrated did not receive an oral rehydration solution [41].


  1. Natural history of lactic acidosis after grand-mal seizures. A model for the study of an anion-gap acidosis not associated with hyperkalemia. Orringer, C.E., Eustace, J.C., Wunsch, C.D., Gardner, L.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Stimulation of lactate production by administration of bicarbonate in a patient with a solid neoplasm and lactic acidosis. Fraley, D.S., Adler, S., Bruns, F.J., Zett, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation. Baud, F.J., Barriot, P., Toffis, V., Riou, B., Vicaut, E., Lecarpentier, Y., Bourdon, R., Astier, A., Bismuth, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Angina due to coronary microvascular disease in hypertensive patients without left ventricular hypertrophy. Brush, J.E., Cannon, R.O., Schenke, W.H., Bonow, R.O., Leon, M.B., Maron, B.J., Epstein, S.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolic effects of dichloroacetate in patients with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipoproteinemia. Stacpoole, P.W., Moore, G.W., Kornhauser, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. A focal brain abnormality in panic disorder, a severe form of anxiety. Reiman, E.M., Raichle, M.E., Butler, F.K., Herscovitch, P., Robins, E. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Lactate provocation of panic attacks. II. Biochemical and physiological findings. Liebowitz, M.R., Gorman, J.M., Fyer, A.J., Levitt, M., Dillon, D., Levy, G., Appleby, I.L., Anderson, S., Palij, M., Davies, S.O. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Altered metabolic properties of cultured skin fibroblasts in Alzheimer's disease. Sims, N.R., Finegan, J.M., Blass, J.P. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Energy metabolism defects in Huntington's disease and effects of coenzyme Q10. Koroshetz, W.J., Jenkins, B.G., Rosen, B.R., Beal, M.F. Ann. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Brain function rescue effect of lactate following hypoglycaemia is not an adaptation process in both normal and type I diabetic subjects. Maran, A., Crepaldi, C., Trupiani, S., Lucca, T., Jori, E., Macdonald, I.A., Tiengo, A., Avogaro, A., Del Prato, S. Diabetologia (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Lactate-proton cotransport in skeletal muscle. Juel, C. Physiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency causes leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation. Scheper, G.C., van der Klok, T., van Andel, R.J., van Berkel, C.G., Sissler, M., Smet, J., Muravina, T.I., Serkov, S.V., Uziel, G., Bugiani, M., Schiffmann, R., Krägeloh-Mann, I., Smeitink, J.A., Florentz, C., Van Coster, R., Pronk, J.C., van der Knaap, M.S. Nat. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. The deoxyguanosine kinase gene is mutated in individuals with depleted hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA. Mandel, H., Szargel, R., Labay, V., Elpeleg, O., Saada, A., Shalata, A., Anbinder, Y., Berkowitz, D., Hartman, C., Barak, M., Eriksson, S., Cohen, N. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Anaerobic bacteria in nonspecific vaginitis. Spiegel, C.A., Amsel, R., Eschenbach, D., Schoenknecht, F., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Measurement of the urinary lactate:creatinine ratio for the early identification of newborn infants at risk for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Huang, C.C., Wang, S.T., Chang, Y.C., Lin, K.P., Wu, P.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Treatment of lactic acidosis with dichloroacetate. Stacpoole, P.W., Harman, E.M., Curry, S.H., Baumgartner, T.G., Misbin, R.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for a detrimental effect of bicarbonate therapy in hypoxic lactic acidosis. Graf, H., Leach, W., Arieff, A.I. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. A specific, highly active malate dehydrogenase by redesign of a lactate dehydrogenase framework. Wilks, H.M., Hart, K.W., Feeney, R., Dunn, C.R., Muirhead, H., Chia, W.N., Barstow, D.A., Atkinson, T., Clarke, A.R., Holbrook, J.J. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Coronary bypass for stable angina: a prospective randomized study. Kloster, F.E., Kremkau, E.L., Ritzmann, L.W., Rahimtoola, S.H., Rösch, J., Kanarek, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Stumvoll, M., Nurjhan, N., Perriello, G., Dailey, G., Gerich, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The acidosis of cholera. Contributions of hyperproteinemia, lactic acidemia, and hyperphosphatemia to an increased serum anion gap. Wang, F., Butler, T., Rabbani, G.H., Jones, P.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Hormonal induction of differentiation in teratocarcinoma stem cells: generation of parietal endoderm by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. Strickland, S., Smith, K.K., Marotti, K.R. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of a membrane transporter for lactate, pyruvate, and other monocarboxylates: implications for the Cori cycle. Garcia, C.K., Goldstein, J.L., Pathak, R.K., Anderson, R.G., Brown, M.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of the blood-brain barrier hexose carrier. Seidner, G., Alvarez, M.G., Yeh, J.I., O'Driscoll, K.R., Klepper, J., Stump, T.S., Wang, D., Spinner, N.B., Birnbaum, M.J., De Vivo, D.C. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Deficiency of protein-carboxyl methylase in immotile spermatozoa of infertile men. Gagnon, C., Sherins, R.J., Phillips, D.M., Bardin, C.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Diagnostic value of blood sampling in fetuses with growth retardation. Pardi, G., Cetin, I., Marconi, A.M., Lanfranchi, A., Bozzetti, P., Ferrazzi, E., Buscaglia, M., Battaglia, F.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum lactate dehydrogenase and bone marrow involvement in small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Doll, D.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise. Physiologic adaptations to physical training. Luger, A., Deuster, P.A., Kyle, S.B., Gallucci, W.T., Montgomery, L.C., Gold, P.W., Loriaux, D.L., Chrousos, G.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Increase in human skeletal muscle lactate produced by fenfluramine. Kirby, M.J., Turner, P. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Lactate-supported synaptic function in the rat hippocampal slice preparation. Schurr, A., West, C.A., Rigor, B.M. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Lactate dehydrogenases of Atlantic hagfish: physiological and evolutionary implications of a primitive heart isozyme. Sidell, B.D., Beland, K.F. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for the involvement of interleukin 10 in the differential deactivation of murine peritoneal macrophages by prostaglandin E2. Strassmann, G., Patil-Koota, V., Finkelman, F., Fong, M., Kambayashi, T. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. PTEN overexpression suppresses proliferation and differentiation and enhances apoptosis of the mouse mammary epithelium. Dupont, J., Renou, J.P., Shani, M., Hennighausen, L., LeRoith, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. The protective role of manganese superoxide dismutase against adriamycin-induced acute cardiac toxicity in transgenic mice. Yen, H.C., Oberley, T.D., Vichitbandha, S., Ho, Y.S., St Clair, D.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is required for mouse mammary gland morphogenesis and function. Muraoka, R.S., Lenferink, A.E., Simpson, J., Brantley, D.M., Roebuck, L.R., Yakes, F.M., Arteaga, C.L. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Mechanisms regulating tissue-specific polarity of monocarboxylate transporters and their chaperone CD147 in kidney and retinal epithelia. Deora, A.A., Philp, N., Hu, J., Bok, D., Rodriguez-Boulan, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene as a prognostic marker in diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Offit, K., Lo Coco, F., Louie, D.C., Parsa, N.Z., Leung, D., Portlock, C., Ye, B.H., Lista, F., Filippa, D.A., Rosenbaum, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Treatment of circulatory shock with dopamine. Studies on survival. Ruiz, C.E., Weil, M.H., Carlson, R.W. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  39. Energy expenditure with indoor exercise machines. Zeni, A.I., Hoffman, M.D., Clifford, P.S. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. 'Lactate washout' following circulatory arrest. Leavy, J.A., Weil, M.H., Rackow, E.C. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Diagnosis and treatment of cholera in the United States. Are we prepared? Besser, R.E., Feikin, D.R., Eberhart-Phillips, J.E., Mascola, L., Griffin, P.M. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
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