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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Fluoridation

  • Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes [1].
  • OBJECTIVES: This analysis was conducted to determine the changes in the effect of exposure to fluoridation and other sources of fluoride on dental fluorosis in children attending Newburgh and Kingston school districts in New York State. METHODS: Data for this analysis were obtained from two surveys conducted in the 1986 and 1995 school years [2].
  • Dental plaque fluoride is lower after discontinuation of water fluoridation [3].
  • Hence, while at the individual level, the slow intra-oral dissolution of fluoride tablets can be of great benefit for coronal caries in children, adolescents, and possibly medically compromised adults (with or without root caries), their contribution on a community basis cannot readily be compared with that of water or salt fluoridation [4].

High impact information on Fluoridation


Chemical compound and disease context of Fluoridation


Biological context of Fluoridation


Anatomical context of Fluoridation


Associations of Fluoridation with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS--We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly [18].
  • The fluoridation of the apatite was aimed to improve the stability of the coating and elicit the fluorine effect, which is useful in the dental restoration area [19].
  • A new method of sample preparation for the instrument, based upon immediate haemolysis and fluoridation of blood, has been developed, allowing measurement of whole blood lactate concentration to be performed on samples as small as 150 microlitre within 5 min of withdrawal [20].
  • The effect of fluoridation on the occurrence of hidden caries in clinically sound occlusal surfaces [21].
  • Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of fluoride supplements were introduced for systemic fluoridation mainly using sodium fluoride [22].

Gene context of Fluoridation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fluoridation

  • Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride [28].
  • Life table rates based on 4,365 children in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program indicate that both fluoridation and sealants are effective in preventing caries on occlusal and buccal/lingual surfaces of molars [29].
  • The effect of topical fluoride varied according to type of control group used, type of TFT used, mode/setting of TFT use, initial caries levels and intensity of TFT application, but was not influenced by exposure to water fluoridation or other fluoride sources [30].
  • When ranking the effectiveness of different caries preventive measures teachers on average listed optimal water fluoridation as a lower priority compared to toothbrushing, dental visits, fluoride mouthrinses and eating fewer sweet products [31].
  • To achieve optimal oral health throughout life, a combination of passive measures (e.g. water fluoridation, school-based fluoride programmes) and active personal behaviours (e.g. oral hygiene, diet control) is required [32].


  1. Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care. Mouradian, W.E., Wehr, E., Crall, J.J. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Kumar, J.V., Swango, P.A. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Dental plaque fluoride is lower after discontinuation of water fluoridation. Nobre dos Santos, M., Cury, J.A. Caries Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Systemic fluorides: drops and tablets. Stephen, K.W. Caries Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Blood lead concentrations in children and method of water fluoridation in the United States, 1988-1994. Macek, M.D., Matte, T.D., Sinks, T., Malvitz, D.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Fluoride: benefits and risks of exposure. Kaminsky, L.S., Mahoney, M.C., Leach, J., Melius, J., Miller, M.J. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Stability and cellular responses to fluorapatite-collagen composites. Yoon, B.H., Kim, H.W., Lee, S.H., Bae, C.J., Koh, Y.H., Kong, Y.M., Kim, H.E. Biomaterials (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Increase of enamel fluoride retention by low fluence argon laser beam: a 6-month follow-up study in vivo. Nammour, S., Rocca, J.P., Pireaux, J.J., Powell, G.L., Morciaux, Y., Demortier, G. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluoride uptake by hydroxyapatite formed by the hydrolysis of alpha-tricalcium phosphate. Leamy, P., Brown, P.W., TenHuisen, K., Randall, C. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Caries prevention--a survey of parental views. Kay, E.J., Blinkhorn, A.S. Health bulletin. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Physicians and caries prevention. Results of a physician survey on preventive dental services. Gift, H.C., Milton, B., Walsh, V. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Dentistry between pathology and cosmetics. Marthaler, T.M. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture. Hillier, S., Inskip, H., Coggon, D., Cooper, C. Community dental health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Fluoride analysis of foods for infants and estimation of daily fluoride intake. Tomori, T., Koga, H., Maki, Y., Takaesu, Y. Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy of preventive agents for dental caries. Systemic fluorides: water fluoridation. Murray, J.J. Caries Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Fluoride content of the enamel and dentine of human premolars prior to and following the introduction of fluoridation in New Zealand. Cutress, T.W., Coote, G.E., Shu, M., Pearce, E.I. Caries Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Does fluoridation harm immune function? Challacombe, S.J. Community dental health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. Danielson, C., Lyon, J.L., Egger, M., Goodenough, G.K. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluoridated apatite coatings on titanium obtained by electron-beam deposition. Lee, E.J., Lee, S.H., Kim, H.W., Kong, Y.M., Kim, H.E. Biomaterials (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Bedside estimation of whole blood lactate. Soutter, W.P., Sharp, F., Clark, D.M. British journal of anaesthesia. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of fluoridation on the occurrence of hidden caries in clinically sound occlusal surfaces. Haugejorden, O., Tveit, A.B. Caries Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Fluoride - is it capable of fighting old and new dental diseases? An overview of existing fluoride compounds and their clinical applications. Brambilla, E. Caries Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Dental preservation in patients irradiated for head and neck tumours: A 10-year experience with topical fluoride and a randomized trial between two fluoridation methods. Horiot, J.C., Schraub, S., Bone, M.C., Bain, Y., Ramadier, J., Chaplain, G., Nabid, N., Thevenot, B., Bransfield, D. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Should the drinking water of Truro, Nova Scotia, be fluoridated? Water fluoridation in the 1990s. Ismail, A.I., Shoveller, J., Langille, D., MacInnis, W.A., McNally, M. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Fluoridation. Part II. Blessley, S. The British dental surgery assistant. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of drinking water fluoridation on stapedial otosclerosis in a low fluoride area. Karjalainen, S., Kärjä, J., Härmä, R., Juola, E. Acta Otolaryngol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Water fluoridation in South Africa: will it be effective? du Plessis, J.B., van Rooyen, J.J., Naude, D.A., van der Merwe, C.A. J. Dent. Assoc. S. Afr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Relationship of fluoride in drinking water to other drinking water parameters. Lynch, C.F. Arch. Environ. Health (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Application of life table methodology in determining dental caries rates. Abernathy, J.R., Graves, R.C., Greenberg, B.G., Bohannan, H.M., Disney, J.A. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Marinho, V.C., Higgins, J.P., Logan, S., Sheiham, A. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Dental knowledge and attitudes among Arab schoolteachers in northern Israel. Sgan-Cohen, H.D., Saadi, S., Weissman, A. International dental journal. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Acceptance of preventive measures by individuals, institutions and communities. Silversin, J., Kornacki, M.J. International dental journal. (1984) [Pubmed]
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