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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Rubulavirus

  • Human parainfluenza virus type 4 (hPIV4) is one of the rubulaviruses, which are members of the family Paramyxoviridae, and has a V protein with a highly conserved cysteine-rich domain that is the hallmark of paramyxovirus V proteins [1].
  • Simian virus 5 (SV5), a closely related rubulavirus, encodes a 44-amino-acid-residue SH protein [2].
  • All Rubulavirus V proteins tested require cellular DDB1 to target STATs for degradation but differ in the use of Roc1, which is essential for mumps V STAT3 targeting [3].
  • On the other hand, among the seven residues known to be critical for neuraminidase activity, only one was conserved in the Hendra virus G protein compared with at least six in HN proteins of paramyxoviruses and rubulaviruses and four in H proteins of morbilliviruses [4].
  • Key differences within the amino acid residues considered important determinants of neuraminidase activity suggest MenV HN is unlikely to possess the same degree of neuraminidase activity characteristic of other rubulavirus and respirovirus HN proteins [5].

High impact information on Rubulavirus

  • The structural rubulavirus V proteins, as expected, are thus clearly important in promoting virus growth, independent of their anti-interferon (IFN) activity [6].
  • The C proteins also induce bulk Stat1 instability in some cells, similar to rubulavirus V proteins [7].
  • The lack of a C protein-coding region in the P/V gene, the creation of P mRNA by insertion of 2-G residues, and the results of phylogenetic analyses all indicated that TiV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus [8].
  • In this paper we show that the porcine rubulavirus LPMV phosphoprotein (P) and V protein (V) both interact with the nucleoprotein (NP) [9].
  • Comparison of N protein amino acid sequences among members of the Paramyxoviridae resulted in NDV and avian paramyxovirus 6 separating as a cluster distinct from the Rubulavirus genus [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rubulavirus


Anatomical context of Rubulavirus

  • Our results show that CD4+CD8- lymphocytes in the early phase of porcine rubulavirus infection can be converted to double-positive cells expressing IL-10 in an antigen-dependent manner, and that CD4+CD8- T-cells late in infection do not acquire CD8 [12].

Gene context of Rubulavirus


  1. Human parainfluenza virus type 4 is incapable of evading the interferon-induced antiviral effect. Nishio, M., Tsurudome, M., Ito, M., Ito, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Function of small hydrophobic proteins of paramyxovirus. Wilson, R.L., Fuentes, S.M., Wang, P., Taddeo, E.C., Klatt, A., Henderson, A.J., He, B. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Composition and assembly of STAT-targeting ubiquitin ligase complexes: paramyxovirus V protein carboxyl terminus is an oligomerization domain. Ulane, C.M., Kentsis, A., Cruz, C.D., Parisien, J.P., Schneider, K.L., Horvath, C.M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The attachment protein of Hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology compared with viruses in the genus Paramyxovirus. Yu, M., Hansson, E., Langedijk, J.P., Eaton, B.T., Wang, L.F. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular characterization of Menangle virus, a novel paramyxovirus which infects pigs, fruit bats, and humans. Bowden, T.R., Westenberg, M., Wang, L.F., Eaton, B.T., Boyle, D.B. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of paramyxovirus V protein residues essential for STAT protein degradation and promotion of virus replication. Nishio, M., Tsurudome, M., Ito, M., Garcin, D., Kolakofsky, D., Ito, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The amino-terminal extensions of the longer Sendai virus C proteins modulate pY701-Stat1 and bulk Stat1 levels independently of interferon signaling. Garcin, D., Marq, J.B., Goodbourn, S., Kolakofsky, D. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Chua, K.B., Wang, L.F., Lam, S.K., Crameri, G., Yu, M., Wise, T., Boyle, D., Hyatt, A.D., Eaton, B.T. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Both the P and V proteins of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV interact with the NP protein via their respective C-terminal unique parts. Svenda, M., Hjertner, B., Linné, T., Berg, M. Virus Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein gene and phylogenetic relationships among the Paramyxoviridae. Seal, B.S., Crawford, J.M., Sellers, H.S., Locke, D.P., King, D.J. Virus Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Secondary structure prediction of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase from a porcine rubulavirus. Zenteno-Cuevas, R., Hernández, J., Espinosa, B., Reyes, J., Zenteno, E. Arch. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative evaluation of the CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8- lymphocytes in the immune response to porcine rubulavirus. Hernández, J., Garfias, Y., Nieto, A., Mercado, C., Montaño, L.F., Zenteno, E. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Paramyxovirus strategies for evading the interferon response. Gotoh, B., Komatsu, T., Takeuchi, K., Yokoo, J. Rev. Med. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Purification and characterization of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of Porcine rubulavirus LPMV. Reyes-Leyva, J., Espinosa, B., Santos, G., Zenteno, R., Hernández, J., Vallejo, V., Zenteno, E. Glycoconj. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
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