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Gene Review

DDB1  -  damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DDB p127 subunit, DDBA, DDBa, DNA damage-binding protein 1, DNA damage-binding protein a, ...
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Disease relevance of DDB1


Psychiatry related information on DDB1


High impact information on DDB1


Chemical compound and disease context of DDB1

  • XPE binding factor (XPE-BF) is deficient in a subset of patients from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E. Binding activity copurifies with a 125 kDa polypeptide (p125) that binds to DNA damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and many other agents [11].
  • One of the two factors, designated XPE binding factor, is deficient in complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disease characterized by defective repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation, cisplatin, and other agents [12].

Biological context of DDB1

  • Hence, HBx-mediated cell death can be relieved by increased levels of DDB2, an effect that is not observed with a naturally occurring mutant of DDB2 that lacks DDB1-binding activity [13].
  • Binding of HBx to DDB1 interferes with cell growth and viability in culture and has been implicated in the establishment of viral infection [1].
  • Transient expression analysis in HeLa cells using a luciferase reporter system indicated the presence of core promoters located within 292 bp (DDB1) and 220 bp (DDB2) upstream of the putative transcription initiation sites [14].
  • Given that the loss of monoubiquitinated histone H2A at the sites of UV-damaged DNA is associated with decreased global genome repair in XP-E cells, this study suggests that histone modification, mediated by the XPE factor, facilitates the initiation of NER [15].
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first occasion that a dwarf phenotype has been found to be associated with a UV-DDB2 mutation in either plants or animals [16].

Anatomical context of DDB1


Associations of DDB1 with chemical compounds

  • The interaction of V and DDB1 involves the carboxyl-terminal domain of V in that either deletion of the V carboxyl-terminal domain or substitution of the cysteine residues (C189, C193, C205, C207, C210, C214, and C217) in the zinc-binding domain with alanine was able to disrupt binding to DDB1 [3].
  • In contrast to previous reports, the DNA damage binding protein was shown to recognize cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in addition to a nonphotoreactivable lesion(s), most likely the pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct [21].
  • Significantly, overexpression of c-Abl increased tyrosine phosphorylation of DDB2 and suppressed UV-DDB activity [22].
  • The interaction between X protein and XAP-1 protein was verified by immunoprecipitation of yeast cell lysates expressing both proteins and by in vitro mixing with X protein expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and XAP-1 protein either in HeLa cell extracts or synthesized by in vitro translation [23].
  • These results suggest that XPE binding factor may be responsible, at least in part, for the development of cisplatin resistance in human tumors and that the mechanism may be increased DNA repair [12].

Physical interactions of DDB1


Regulatory relationships of DDB1

  • Hepatitis B virus X protein associated with UV-DDB1 induces cell death in the nucleus and is functionally antagonized by UV-DDB2 [13].
  • Binding of SV5-V to DDB1 may serve another function, since SV5-V shows a decreased ability to induce STAT1 degradation in cells expressing reduced amounts of DDB1 [1].
  • Second, mutations in the N and C termini of V which abolish the binding of V to DDB1 also prevent V from blocking interferon (IFN) signaling [2].
  • DDB1-depleted cells accumulate DNA double-strand breaks in widely dispersed regions throughout the genome and have activated ATM and ATR cell cycle checkpoints [27].
  • We show that the interaction with DDB1 mediates Vpr-induced apoptosis and UNG2/SMUG1 degradation and impairs the repair of UV-damaged DNA, which could account for G(2) arrest and apoptosis [28].

Other interactions of DDB1

  • UV-DDB comprises two subunits, products of the DDB1 and DDB2 genes, respectively [15].
  • First, the V protein of an SV5 mutant which fails to target STAT1 for degradation does not bind DDB1 [2].
  • This complex includes both STAT1 and STAT2, and the damaged DNA binding protein, DDB1 [29].
  • Moreover, we provide evidence for a physical association between Cul4A, DDB1, and Skp2 [30].
  • All Rubulavirus V proteins tested require cellular DDB1 to target STATs for degradation but differ in the use of Roc1, which is essential for mumps V STAT3 targeting [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DDB1


  1. Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 binding properties to mediate distinct activities. Leupin, O., Bontron, S., Strubin, M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The p127 subunit (DDB1) of the UV-DNA damage repair binding protein is essential for the targeted degradation of STAT1 by the V protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5. Andrejeva, J., Poole, E., Young, D.F., Goodbourn, S., Randall, R.E. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The V protein of the paramyxovirus SV5 interacts with damage-specific DNA binding protein. Lin, G.Y., Paterson, R.G., Richardson, C.D., Lamb, R.A. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E protein (XPE/DDB2): purification of various complexes of XPE and analyses of their damaged DNA binding and putative DNA repair properties. Kulaksiz, G., Reardon, J.T., Sancar, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates viral genome replication via a DDB1-dependent pathway distinct from that leading to cell death. Leupin, O., Bontron, S., Schaeffer, C., Strubin, M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. GRAND ROUNDS: An Atypical Progressive Dementia in a Male Carrier of the Fragile X Premutation: An Example of Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome. Mothersead, P.K., Conrad, K., Hagerman, R.J., Greco, C.M., Hessl, D., Tassone, F. Applied neuropsychology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. UV-induced ubiquitylation of XPC protein mediated by UV-DDB-ubiquitin ligase complex. Sugasawa, K., Okuda, Y., Saijo, M., Nishi, R., Matsuda, N., Chu, G., Mori, T., Iwai, S., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, K., Hanaoka, F. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The ubiquitin ligase activity in the DDB2 and CSA complexes is differentially regulated by the COP9 signalosome in response to DNA damage. Groisman, R., Polanowska, J., Kuraoka, I., Sawada, J., Saijo, M., Drapkin, R., Kisselev, A.F., Tanaka, K., Nakatani, Y. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Ddb1 controls genome stability and meiosis in fission yeast. Holmberg, C., Fleck, O., Hansen, H.A., Liu, C., Slaaby, R., Carr, A.M., Nielsen, O. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Xeroderma pigmentosum p48 gene enhances global genomic repair and suppresses UV-induced mutagenesis. Tang, J.Y., Hwang, B.J., Ford, J.M., Hanawalt, P.C., Chu, G. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Isolation of a cDNA encoding a UV-damaged DNA binding factor defective in xeroderma pigmentosum group E cells. Hwang, B.J., Liao, J.C., Chu, G. Mutat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Cisplatin-resistant cells express increased levels of a factor that recognizes damaged DNA. Chu, G., Chang, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Hepatitis B virus X protein associated with UV-DDB1 induces cell death in the nucleus and is functionally antagonized by UV-DDB2. Bontron, S., Lin-Marq, N., Strubin, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Basal transcriptional regulation of human damage-specific DNA-binding protein genes DDB1 and DDB2 by Sp1, E2F, N-myc and NF1 elements. Nichols, A.F., Itoh, T., Zolezzi, F., Hutsell, S., Linn, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The DDB1-CUL4ADDB2 ubiquitin ligase is deficient in xeroderma pigmentosum group E and targets histone H2A at UV-damaged DNA sites. Kapetanaki, M.G., Guerrero-Santoro, J., Bisi, D.C., Hsieh, C.L., Rapić-Otrin, V., Levine, A.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi silenced plants of Arabidopsis thaliana UV-damaged DNA binding protein 2 (AtUV-DDB2). Koga, A., Ishibashi, T., Kimura, S., Uchiyama, Y., Sakaguchi, K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. DDB2 induces nuclear accumulation of the hepatitis B virus X protein independently of binding to DDB1. Nag, A., Datta, A., Yoo, K., Bhattacharyya, D., Chakrabortty, A., Wang, X., Slagle, B.L., Costa, R.H., Raychaudhuri, P. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of rat DDB1, a putative DNA repair protein, and functional correlation with its damaged-DNA recognition activity. Sun, N.K., Lu, H.P., Chao, C.C. J. Biomed. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Translocation of a UV-damaged DNA binding protein into a tight association with chromatin after treatment of mammalian cells with UV light. Otrin, V.R., McLenigan, M., Takao, M., Levine, A.S., Protić, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Massive cisplatin overdose by accidental substitution for carboplatin. Toxicity and management. Chu, G., Mantin, R., Shen, Y.M., Baskett, G., Sussman, H. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a human DNA damage binding protein implicated in xeroderma pigmentosum E. Keeney, S., Chang, G.J., Linn, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Interaction between UV-damaged DNA binding activity proteins and the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Cong, F., Tang, J., Hwang, B.J., Vuong, B.Q., Chu, G., Goff, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Hepatitis B virus X protein interacts with a probable cellular DNA repair protein. Lee, T.H., Elledge, S.J., Butel, J.S. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. L2DTL/CDT2 interacts with the CUL4/DDB1 complex and PCNA and regulates CDT1 proteolysis in response to DNA damage. Higa, L.A., Banks, D., Wu, M., Kobayashi, R., Sun, H., Zhang, H. Cell Cycle (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. De-etiolated 1 and damaged DNA binding protein 1 interact to regulate Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis. Schroeder, D.F., Gahrtz, M., Maxwell, B.B., Cook, R.K., Kan, J.M., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Chory, J. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. A 127-kDa protein (UV-DDB) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. Watanabe, T., Sukegawa, J., Sukegawa, I., Tomita, S., Iijima, K., Oguchi, S., Suzuki, T., Nairn, A.C., Greengard, P. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. DDB1 Maintains Genome Integrity through Regulation of Cdt1. Lovejoy, C.A., Lock, K., Yenamandra, A., Cortez, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. HIV-1 Vpr function is mediated by interaction with the damage-specific DNA-binding protein DDB1. Schröfelbauer, B., Hakata, Y., Landau, N.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Paramyxoviruses SV5 and HPIV2 assemble STAT protein ubiquitin ligase complexes from cellular components. Ulane, C.M., Horvath, C.M. Virology (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Cul4A and DDB1 associate with Skp2 to target p27Kip1 for proteolysis involving the COP9 signalosome. Bondar, T., Kalinina, A., Khair, L., Kopanja, D., Nag, A., Bagchi, S., Raychaudhuri, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Composition and assembly of STAT-targeting ubiquitin ligase complexes: paramyxovirus V protein carboxyl terminus is an oligomerization domain. Ulane, C.M., Kentsis, A., Cruz, C.D., Parisien, J.P., Schneider, K.L., Horvath, C.M. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Chromosomal localization and cDNA cloning of the genes (DDB1 and DDB2) for the p127 and p48 subunits of a human damage-specific DNA binding protein. Dualan, R., Brody, T., Keeney, S., Nichols, A.F., Admon, A., Linn, S. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. DDB2, the xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene product, is directly ubiquitylated by Cullin 4A-based ubiquitin ligase complex. Matsuda, N., Azuma, K., Saijo, M., Iemura, S., Hioki, Y., Natsume, T., Chiba, T., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, K. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Refined mapping of the gene encoding the p127 kDa UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB1) within 11q12-q13.1 and its exclusion in Best's vitelliform macular dystrophy. Stöhr, H., Marquardt, A., Rivera, A., Kellner, U., Weber, B.H. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. The tomato homolog of the gene encoding UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) underlined as the gene that causes the high pigment-1 mutant phenotype. Lieberman, M., Segev, O., Gilboa, N., Lalazar, A., Levin, I. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
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