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Gene Review

IL10  -  interleukin 10

Sus scrofa

Synonyms: CSIF, IL-10
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Disease relevance of IL10

  • The porcine IL-10 nucleotide sequence was found to be highly homologous to the rat, mouse, and human IL-10 counterparts and to one of the open reading frames from the Epstein-Barr virus [1].
  • To evaluate variables influencing in vitro immune response induction, pig monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were treated with putative type-1 and type-2 antigens (Ags, killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL)) and recombinant porcine cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) [2].
  • This study implies that the induction of IL-10 production may be one of the strategies used by PRRSV to modulate host immune responses [3].
  • These results indicated a strong involvement of IFN-gamma, and maybe IL-10, in the development of immunity against PRRS virus [4].
  • In addition, when PBMCs from pigs immunized previously with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccine were cultivated with the recall antigen, CSFV, in the presence of PRRSV, significant upregulation of IL-10 gene expression and reduction of IFN-gamma gene expression were observed [3].

High impact information on IL10


Biological context of IL10


Anatomical context of IL10

  • Virus-induced in vitro lymphocyte (cross-) proliferation and production of both a Th1-type (IFN-gamma) and a Th2-type (IL-10) cytokine response were demonstrated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [10].
  • Both IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNA levels were increased in mucosa, whereas IL-6 and IL-12 mRNA were expressed in spleen [11].
  • The expression levels of Type 1 (IFN-gamma, IL-12), Type 2 (IL-4, IL-6), pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha) and regulatory (IL-10, TGF-beta) cytokines were assessed by RT-PCR in the intestinal mucosa and spleen [11].
  • Our results show that the indirect presentation pathway of xenoantigens by huAPC to CD4+ lymphocytes is crucial in the response to porcine endothelial cells, and that IL-10 could be of therapeutic interest to prevent human lymphocyte activation by this pathway [12].
  • In H pigs, infection increased the frequency of expression of mRNAs for interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in mononuclear cells from synovial membranes (SM) [13].

Associations of IL10 with chemical compounds

  • In the present study, the effects of montelukast on the level of IL-10 and on the activation of NF-kappaB in the inflammatory airway of asthmatic guinea pigs were investigated [14].
  • Both 150 and 300 nM CORT suppressed IL-10 at 24 h (P<0.05), but neither concentration affected IFNgamma at 24 h [15].
  • In Experiment 1, DEX, at 150 and 300 nM, suppressed concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated IFNgamma at both 12 and 24 h in culture, and IL-10 at 24h (P<0.05) [15].
  • Kinetics of the production of serum antibody levels and Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines was studied in five pigs vaccinated with a synthetic tri-peptide vaccine (S3Pvac) against Taenia solium, a vaccine that has been shown protects pigs against naturally acquired infection [16].
  • In vivo, dietary beta-glucan attenuated the increase of plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and enhanced the increase of plasma IL-10 when pigs were challenged with LPS [17].

Regulatory relationships of IL10


Other interactions of IL10

  • The present study shows that elevated levels of serum CRP and IL-10 were associated with PCV2-infected piglets that subsequently developed severe PMWS [20].
  • The goal of this porcine study was to investigate the effect of V.A.C.((R)) Therapy on the systemic distribution of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta1 [21].
  • Levels of serum IFN-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP were examined for a 35-day period in 10 piglets experimentally infected with PCV2 at 3 weeks of age [20].
  • WB cultures exhibited peak IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA levels at 24, 12, 6 and 24h, respectively [22].
  • PBMC cultures demonstrated peak expression of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA levels at 12, 24, 24 and 6h, respectively [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL10

  • Delayed expression and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in tolerant animals compared with animals rejecting their allografts [1].
  • In addition, pig IL-10 caused inhibition of gamma-interferon gene transcription as determined by a bioassay [1].
  • The level of IL-10 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay [14].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Donor preconditioning with IL-10 may constitute an interesting pharmacologic approach to reduce IRI severity after liver transplantation [23].
  • In conclusion, the cytokine mRNA imbalance, specially the increased mRNA levels of IL-10 in the thymus, jointly with the histopathological and haematological disorders, are highly indicative of a T-cell immunosuppression, enhancing the notion that the immune system of PMWS-affected pigs is severely impaired [24].


  1. Molecular identification of porcine interleukin 10: regulation of expression in a kidney allograft model. Blancho, G., Gianello, P., Germana, S., Baetscher, M., Sachs, D.H., LeGuern, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of antigen and recombinant porcine cytokines on pig dendritic cell cytokine expression in vitro. Raymond, C.R., Sidahmed, A.M., Wilkie, B.N. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Upregulation of IL-10 gene expression in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Suradhat, S., Thanawongnuwech, R., Poovorawan, Y. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Different European-type vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have different immunological properties and confer different protection to pigs. Díaz, I., Darwich, L., Pappaterra, G., Pujols, J., Mateu, E. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. CTLA4Ig-induced linked regulation of allogeneic T cell responses. Lee, R.S., Rusche, J.R., Maloney, M.E., Sachs, D.H., Sayegh, M.H., Madsen, J.C. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular and cellular events implicated in local tolerance to kidney allografts in miniature swine. Blancho, G., Gianello, P.R., Lorf, T., Germana, S., Giangrande, I., Mourad, G., Colvin, R.B., Sachs, D.H., LeGuern, C. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Pretreatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha attenuates arterial hypotension and mortality induced by endotoxin in pigs. Murphey, E.D., Traber, D.L. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of hemodiafiltration and sepsis on chemotaxis of granulocytes and the release of IL-8 and IL-10. Toft, P., Brix-Christensen, V., Baech, J., Krog, J., Jørgensen, H.S., Tønnesen, E., Petersen, T.K., Dagnaes-Hansen, F. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Apoptosis in the lungs of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and associations with the production of apoptogenic cytokines. Labarque, G., Van Gucht, S., Nauwynck, H., Van Reeth, K., Pensaert, M. Vet. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of immune responses after intra-typic heterologous and homologous vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in pigs. Eblé, P.L., de Bruin, M.G., Bouma, A., van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F., Dekker, A. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Swine infection with Trichinella spiralis: Comparative analysis of the mucosal intestinal and systemic immune responses. Picherot, M., Oswald, I.P., Cote, M., Noeckler, K., Le Guerhier, F., Boireau, P., Vall??e, I. Vet. Parasitol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Human T lymphocyte proliferative response to resting porcine endothelial cells results from an HLA-restricted, IL-10-sensitive, indirect presentation pathway but also depends on endothelial-specific costimulatory factors. Vallée, I., Guillaumin, J.M., Thibault, G., Gruel, Y., Lebranchu, Y., Bardos, P., Watier, H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytokines in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-induced arthritis in pigs bred selectively for high and low immune responses. Jayagopala Reddy, N.R., Wilkie, B.N., Borgs, P., Mallard, B.A. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Montelukast prevents the decrease of interleukin-10 and inhibits NF-kappaB activation in inflammatory airway of asthmatic guinea pigs. Wu, Y., Zhou, C., Tao, J., Li, S. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Glucocorticoid regulation of type 1 and type 2 cytokines in cultured porcine splenocytes. Skjolaas, K.A., Grieger, D.M., Hill, C.M., Minton, J.E. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Th1 and Th2 indices of the immune response in pigs vaccinated against Taenia solium cysticercosis suggest various host immune strategies against the parasite. Díaz, M.A., Villalobos, N., de Aluja, A., Rosas, G., Goméz-Conde, E., Hernández, P., Larralde, C., Sciutto, E., Fragoso, G. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of beta-glucan extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on humoral and cellular immunity in weaned piglets. Li, J., Xing, J., Li, D., Wang, X., Zhao, L., Lv, S., Huang, D. Archives of animal nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. In vivo studies on cytokine involvement during acute viral respiratory disease of swine: troublesome but rewarding. Van Reeth, K., Van Gucht, S., Pensaert, M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Systemic and mucosal immune responses of pigs to parenteral immunization with a pepsin-digested Serpulina hyodysenteriae bacterin. Waters, W.R., Sacco, R.E., Dorn, A.D., Hontecillas, R., Zuckermann, F.A., Wannemuehler, M.J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytokine and C-reactive protein profiles induced by porcine circovirus type 2 experimental infection in 3-week-old piglets. Stevenson, L.S., McCullough, K., Vincent, I., Gilpin, D.F., Summerfield, A., Nielsen, J., McNeilly, F., Adair, B.M., Allan, G.M. Viral Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy on early systemic cytokine levels in a swine model. Kilpadi, D.V., Bower, C.E., Reade, C.C., Robinson, P.J., Sun, Y.S., Zeri, R., Nifong, L.W., Wooden, W.A. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential cytokine mRNA expression in swine whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Yancy, H., Ayers, S.L., Farrell, D.E., Day, A., Myers, M.J. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Preconditioning of donors with interleukin-10 reduces hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in pigs. Donckier, V., Loi, P., Closset, J., Nagy, N., Quertinmont, E., Le Moine, O., Devière, J., Goldman, M., Gelin, M., Gianello, P. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytokine mRNA expression profiles in lymphoid tissues of pigs naturally affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Darwich, L., Pié, S., Rovira, A., Segalés, J., Domingo, M., Oswald, I.P., Mateu, E. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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