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Gene Review

HN  -  hemagglutinin-neuraminidase

Human parainfluenza virus 2

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Disease relevance of HN

  • The nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (PIV-2) was determined [1].
  • These antibodies had specificities for the HN, NP and P proteins and together with 54 MAbs to SV5 were tested for their ability to react with SV5, PF-2, PF-3, mumps and measles virus proteins [2].
  • Marked differences in the apparent Mrs of the HN, NP and F proteins of simian virus 5 (SV5) and parainfluenza virus type 2 (PF-2) were revealed by SDS-PAGE [2].
  • Six other Sendai virus monoclonal antibodies directed against four different epitopes of the HN protein and one directed against the NP protein cross-reacted with mumps virus [3].
  • Two Sendai virus monoclonal antibodies directed against two different epitopes of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein cross-reacted with parainfluenza type 3 virus [3].

High impact information on HN

  • Variations were found in four, three, and three different antigenic sites of the NP, P, and HN proteins, respectively [4].
  • The reason for the high incidence of vaccine-associated meningitis due to the Urabe AM9 vaccine was assessed by comparing the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene from vaccine virus to those of viruses isolated from persons with postvaccination meningitis [5].
  • Furthermore, PIV2 HN protein proved to promote cell fusion mediated by PIV4A F protein [6].
  • Identification of regions on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 important for promoting cell fusion [6].
  • During genome sequencing, a separate gene was identified between the fusion protein (F) gene and the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN) gene [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of HN


Biological context of HN


Anatomical context of HN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HN


  1. Sequence determination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus and the construction of a phylogenetic tree for HN proteins of all the paramyxoviruses that are infectious to humans. Kawano, M., Bando, H., Yuasa, T., Kondo, K., Tsurudome, M., Komada, H., Nishio, M., Ito, Y. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison between parainfluenza virus type 2 and simian virus 5: monoclonal antibodies reveal major antigenic differences. Randall, R.E., Young, D.F. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunological relationships between mumps virus and parainfluenza viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies. Orvell, C., Rydbeck, R., Löve, A. J. Gen. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. The reactions of monoclonal antibodies with structural proteins of mumps virus. Orvell, C. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. The Urabe AM9 mumps vaccine is a mixture of viruses differing at amino acid 335 of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene with one form associated with disease. Brown, E.G., Dimock, K., Wright, K.E. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of regions on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 important for promoting cell fusion. Tsurudome, M., Kawano, M., Yuasa, T., Tabata, N., Nishio, M., Komada, H., Ito, Y. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of six genes, determination of gene order and intergenic sequences and leader sequence of mumps virus. Elango, N., Varsanyi, T.M., Kövamees, J., Norrby, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Uptake of porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) by PK-15 cells. Hernández-Jáuregui, P., Yacoub, A., Kennedy, S., Curran, B., Téllez, C., Svenda, M., Ljung, L., Moreno-López, J. Arch. Med. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase epitopes involved in antigenic variation of recent human parainfluenza virus type 2 isolates. Ray, R., Duncan, J., Quinn, R., Matsuoka, Y. Virus Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Simple differentiation method of mumps Hoshino vaccine strain from wild strains by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Yoshida, N., Fujino, M., Ota, Y., Notomi, T., Nakayama, T. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Antigenic variation of envelope and internal proteins of mumps virus strains detected with monoclonal antibodies. Rydbeck, R., Löve, A., Orvell, C., Norrby, E. J. Gen. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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