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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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High impact information on Betulaceae

  • Bet v I is the major allergen of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen and shows high homology to the major allergens of pollens of other trees within the order fagales (hazel, alder, hornbeam, oak, etc.), which represent important inhalant allergens in the northern hemisphere [1].
  • Recombinant birch pollen allergens (rBet v 1 and rBet v 2) contain most of the IgE epitopes present in birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, and oak pollen: a quantitative IgE inhibition study with sera from different populations [2].
  • Therefore, in the case of the major allergens of the Betulaceae, an extract with only one major allergen, preferentially Bet v I, instead of all four major allergens, should be sufficient for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes [3].
  • The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass [4].
  • Our data indicate that the magnitude of CO2 effects on stand transpiration will depend on rainfall regimes and the relative abundance of the different species, being more pronounced under humid conditions and in stands dominated by species such as Carpinus and negligible in mono-specific Fagus forests [5].

Biological context of Betulaceae

  • Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, is a member of a multigene family; a number of isoforms and homologous proteins from closely related species (alder, hazel and hornbeam) has been isolated and their cDNAs cloned and characterized [6].
  • Comparing amino acid sequences of Cor a I isoforms with the published sequences of Aln g I, the major allergen from alder, and Car b I and isoforms, the major allergen from hornbeam, 75.5-76.7% identity (83.6-85% similarity) and 83.6-89.9% sequence identity (89.3-95% similarity), respectively, was found [7].

Associations of Betulaceae with chemical compounds

  • Cyanogenic glycosides and menisdaurin from Guazuma ulmifolia, Ostrya virgininana, Tiquilia plicata and Tiquilia canescens [8].
  • In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified [9].

Gene context of Betulaceae

  • The highest values of Rho (0.8-0.9) were found for pollen from combinations of trees belonging to the families Betulaceae, Corylaceae and Fagaceae (birch, alder, hazel, beech and oak) [10].
  • Responses were most pronounced in Carpinus, Acer, Prunus and Tilia, smaller in Quercus and close to zero in Fagus trees [5].
  • BIP 4 reacted with the 17-, 18.5- and 18-kDa spots of birch, alder and hornbeam, but did not react with the 17-kDa spots of hazel and the 16.5-kDa spots of hornbeam [11].
  • The major allergens of birch (Bet v I), alder (Aln g I), hazel (Cor a I) and hornbeam (Car b I) were investigated by means of high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with immunoblotting [11].
  • Among 3473 patients suffering from seasonal respiratory allergy with positive SPT to one or more pollens, 558 (16.06%) showed SPT positivity to Betulaceae and/or Corylaceae pollens, both isolated and associated with other allergens [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Betulaceae


  1. Identification of multiple T cell epitopes on Bet v I, the major birch pollen allergen, using specific T cell clones and overlapping peptides. Ebner, C., Szépfalusi, Z., Ferreira, F., Jilek, A., Valenta, R., Parronchi, P., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S., Scheiner, O., Kraft, D. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Recombinant birch pollen allergens (rBet v 1 and rBet v 2) contain most of the IgE epitopes present in birch, alder, hornbeam, hazel, and oak pollen: a quantitative IgE inhibition study with sera from different populations. Niederberger, V., Pauli, G., Grönlund, H., Fröschl, R., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D., Valenta, R., Spitzauer, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Homology of the major birch-pollen allergen, Bet v I, with the major pollen allergens of alder, hazel, and hornbeam at the nucleic acid level as determined by cross-hybridization. Valenta, R., Breiteneder, H., Petternburger, K., Breitenbach, M., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D., Scheiner, O. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns. Pettorelli, N., Dray, S., Gaillard, J.M., Chessel, D., Duncan, P., Illius, A., Guillon, N., Klein, F., Van Laere, G. Oecologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Elevated CO2 reduces sap flux in mature deciduous forest trees. Cech, P.G., Pepin, S., Körner, C. Oecologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic characterization of members of the Bet v 1 family: genes coding for allergens and pathogenesis-related proteins share intron positions. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., Vanek-Krebitz, M., Radauer, C., Wen, J., Ferreira, F., Scheiner, O., Breiteneder, H. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties. Breiteneder, H., Ferreira, F., Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., Ebner, C., Breitenbach, M., Rumpold, H., Kraft, D., Scheiner, O. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Cyanogenic glycosides and menisdaurin from Guazuma ulmifolia, Ostrya virgininana, Tiquilia plicata and Tiquilia canescens. Seigler, D.S. Phytochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation. Peternel, R., Srnec, L., Culig, J., Zaninović, K., Mitić, B., Vukusić, I. International journal of biometeorology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Tree pollen allergy. III. Cross reactions based on results from skin prick tests and the RAST in hay fever patients. A multi-centre study. Eriksson, N.E., Wihl, J.A., Arrendal, H., Strandhede, S.O. Allergy (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. The immunological relationship of epitopes on major tree pollen allergens. Rohac, M., Birkner, T., Reimitzer, I., Bohle, B., Steiner, R., Breitenbach, M., Kraft, D., Scheiner, O., Gabl, F., Rumpold, H. Mol. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Allergy to pollens from Betulaceae and Corylaceae in a Mediterranean area (Genoa, Italy)--a ten-year retrospective study. Troise, C., Voltolini, S., Delbono, G., Negrini, A.C. Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology : official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. PCR based cloning and sequencing of isogenes encoding the tree pollen major allergen Car b I from Carpinus betulus, hornbeam. Larsen, J.N., Strøman, P., Ipsen, H. Mol. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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