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MeSH Review

Vitamin A Deficiency

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Psychiatry related information on Vitamin A Deficiency

  • Comprehensive recommendations for the assessment and control of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were rigorously reviewed and revised by a working group and presented for discussion at the XX International Vitamin A Consultative Group meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam [1].

High impact information on Vitamin A Deficiency

  • Mice fed a semipurified, vitamin A-deficient diet (A- mice) and control animals fed the same diet with added retinyl acetate (A+ mice) were used to investigate the effect of vitamin A deficiency on primary immunoglobulin responses to protein antigens [2].
  • In contrast, RXR alpha af1(o)/RAR(-/-)(alpha, beta or gamma) compound mutants die in utero and exhibit a large array of malformations that nearly recapitulate the full spectrum of the defects that characterize the fetal vitamin A-deficiency (VAD) syndrome [3].
  • A field evaluation in a population at risk for vitamin A deficiency (VAD) resulted in close correlation between RBP EIA measures and retinol measures by HPLC (R(2) = 0.82) [4].
  • Two biochemical indicators are currently recommended for determining whether vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem: serum retinol and serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) [5].
  • Finally, daily administration of retinoic acid (RA) failed to reverse the 39-week Vitamin A deficiency (VAD)-related cognitive deficit and to fully normalise the associated brain retinoid hyposignalling [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vitamin A Deficiency


Biological context of Vitamin A Deficiency


Gene context of Vitamin A Deficiency

  • Previous investigations in mice have shown that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) generates a hypo-expression of retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A) receptors and of neurogranin (RC3, a neuronal protein involved in synaptic plasticity) and a concomitant selective behavioural impairment [12].
  • We showed previously that the proliferation of hamster airway secretory cells decreases during vitamin A deficiency (VAD) but later increases when submucosal inflammation develops (Virchows Arch [B] 59:231-242, 1990) [13].


  1. Assessment and control of vitamin A deficiency: the Annecy Accords. Sommer, A., Davidson, F.R. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Contrasting impairments in IgM and IgG responses of vitamin A-deficient mice. Smith, S.M., Hayes, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential contributions of AF-1 and AF-2 activities to the developmental functions of RXR alpha. Mascrez, B., Mark, M., Krezel, W., Dupé, V., LeMeur, M., Ghyselinck, N.B., Chambon, P. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of a rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of retinol-binding protein. Hix, J., Martinez, C., Buchanan, I., Morgan, J., Tam, M., Shankar, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemical indicators of vitamin A deficiency: serum retinol and serum retinol binding protein. de Pee, S., Dary, O. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Vitamin A deficiency and relational memory deficit in adult mice: relationships with changes in brain retinoid signalling. Etchamendy, N., Enderlin, V., Marighetto, A., Pallet, V., Higueret, P., Jaffard, R. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Retinol binding protein as a surrogate measure for serum retinol: studies in vitamin A-deficient children from the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Gamble, M.V., Ramakrishnan, R., Palafox, N.A., Briand, K., Berglund, L., Blaner, W.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of gestational age and retinol (vitamin A) deficiency on fetal rat lung nuclear retinoic acid receptors. McMenamy, K.R., Zachman, R.D. Pediatr. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of vitamin A deficiency on rat incisor formation. Punyasingh, J.T., Hoffman, S., Harris, S.S., Navia, J.M. J. Oral Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Sardine oil rich in retinyl esters to fight vitamin a deficiency in Kingdom of Morocco. Nasri, I., El Bouhali, B., Sellam, K., Ouichou, A. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Full-term, peri-urban South African infants under 6 months of age are at risk for early-onset anaemia. Sibeko, L.N., Dhansay, M.A., Charlton, K.E., Johns, T., Van Stuijvenberg, M.E., Gray-Donald, K. Public health nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Triiodothyronine administration reverses vitamin A deficiency-related hypo-expression of retinoic acid and triiodothyronine nuclear receptors and of neurogranin in rat brain. Husson, M., Enderlin, V., Alfos, S., Féart, C., Higueret, P., Pallet, V. Br. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Vitamin A deficiency and inflammation: the pivotal role of secretory cells in the development of atrophic, hyperplastic and metaplastic change in the tracheal epithelium in vivo. Zhang, X.M., McDowell, E.M. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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