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Gene Review

Rxra  -  retinoid X receptor alpha

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 9530071D11Rik, Nr2b1, Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 1, RXR alpha 1, RXRalpha1, ...
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Disease relevance of Rxra


High impact information on Rxra


Chemical compound and disease context of Rxra


Biological context of Rxra


Anatomical context of Rxra


Associations of Rxra with chemical compounds

  • These data demonstrate the presence of a complex circuitry in which RXRalpha is integrated into a number of diverse physiological pathways as a common regulatory component of cholesterol, fatty acid, bile acid, steroid, and xenobiotic metabolism and homeostasis [17].
  • These observations indicate that transcriptional processes which are inappropriately regulated in the mouse limb by exogenous RA require RXR alpha for their execution, and that specific teratogenic processes, as well as specific normal developmental processes under vitamin A control, occur through individual members of the RXR and RAR families [16].
  • To correlate the expression of FATP to its physiological function, treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PPARgamma and RXRalpha activators resulted in an increased uptake of oleate [19].
  • The expression patterns of the three mouse retinoic acid (RA) receptor gene isotypes (RARalpha, RARbeta, and RARgamma) and retinoid X receptor gene isotypes (RXRalpha, RXRbeta, and RXRgamma) have been investigated by in situ hybridization analysis of their RNA transcripts in the inner ear of mouse fetuses at 18.5 days of gestation [20].
  • The level was also increased by clofibrate treatment in wild-type mice without a concomitant increase of RXRalpha mRNA, but not in PPARalpha-null mice [21].

Physical interactions of Rxra


Regulatory relationships of Rxra


Other interactions of Rxra


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rxra

  • At E12.5, before the embryonic lethality, we found no qualitative difference between wild type and Rxra(-/-) proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in outflow tract cushion tissue but a significant increase in apoptosis as assessed by both TUNEL labeling in paraffin sections and caspase activity in trypsin-dispersed hearts [14].
  • Levels of UCP1, RARalpha and RXRalpha in BAT were determined by immunoblotting [30].
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the repeat element was able to form retarded complexes with TR alpha homodimers, as well as with TR alpha-RXR alpha heterodimers [31].
  • In the present study, the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha, beta and gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXR alpha, beta and gamma) was examined by Northern blot analysis in rat adipose tissue and mouse 3T3-L1 adipose cells [32].
  • Purification and crystallization of the heterodimeric complex of RARbeta and RXRalpha ligand-binding domains in the active conformation [33].


  1. Impaired adipogenesis and lipolysis in the mouse upon selective ablation of the retinoid X receptor alpha mediated by a tamoxifen-inducible chimeric Cre recombinase (Cre-ERT2) in adipocytes. Imai, T., Jiang, M., Chambon, P., Metzger, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-mediated pathways are altered in hepatocyte-specific retinoid X receptor alpha-deficient mice. Wan, Y.J., Cai, Y., Lungo, W., Fu, P., Locker, J., French, S., Sucov, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction of both RAR and RXR levels is required to maximally alter sensitivity of CA-OV3 ovarian tumor cells to growth suppression by all-trans-retinoic acid. Wu, S., Zhang, Z.P., Zhang, D., Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of PPAR alpha/RXR alpha-mediated direct hyperplasia pathways during griseofulvin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Nagao, Y., French, B.A., Cai, Y., French, S.W., Wan, Y.J. J. Cell. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Breast cancer progression in MCF10A series of cell lines is associated with alterations in retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors and with differential response to retinoids. Peng, X., Yun, D., Christov, K. Int. J. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of CLOCK and MOP4 by nuclear hormone receptors in the vasculature: a humoral mechanism to reset a peripheral clock. McNamara, P., Seo, S.P., Rudic, R.D., Sehgal, A., Chakravarti, D., FitzGerald, G.A. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic analysis of RXR alpha developmental function: convergence of RXR and RAR signaling pathways in heart and eye morphogenesis. Kastner, P., Grondona, J.M., Mark, M., Gansmuller, A., LeMeur, M., Decimo, D., Vonesch, J.L., Dollé, P., Chambon, P. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Skin abnormalities generated by temporally controlled RXRalpha mutations in mouse epidermis. Li, M., Indra, A.K., Warot, X., Brocard, J., Messaddeq, N., Kato, S., Metzger, D., Chambon, P. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. RXRalpha acts as a carrier for TR3 nuclear export in a 9-cis retinoic acid-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. Lin, X.F., Zhao, B.X., Chen, H.Z., Ye, X.F., Yang, C.Y., Zhou, H.Y., Zhang, M.Q., Lin, S.C., Wu, Q. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Retinoid X receptor alpha regulates glutathione homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification processes in mouse liver. Wu, Y., Zhang, X., Bardag-Gorce, F., Robel, R.C., Aguilo, J., Chen, L., Zeng, Y., Hwang, K., French, S.W., Lu, S.C., Wan, Y.J. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor-alpha-deficient mice have reduced food intake, increased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance. Wan, Y.J., Han, G., Cai, Y., Dai, T., Konishi, T., Leng, A.S. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of hepatocyte RXR alpha in xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor-mediated pathways. Cai, Y., Konishi, T., Han, G., Campwala, K.H., French, S.W., Wan, Y.J. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinoid receptor-dependent and -independent effects of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Clifford, J.L., Menter, D.G., Wang, M., Lotan, R., Lippman, S.M. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Elevated transforming growth factor beta2 enhances apoptosis and contributes to abnormal outflow tract and aortic sac development in retinoic X receptor alpha knockout embryos. Kubalak, S.W., Hutson, D.R., Scott, K.K., Shannon, R.A. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Ligand-dependent activation of transcription in vitro by retinoic acid receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimers that mimics transactivation by retinoids in vivo. Dilworth, F.J., Fromental-Ramain, C., Remboutsika, E., Benecke, A., Chambon, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Mouse embryos lacking RXR alpha are resistant to retinoic-acid-induced limb defects. Sucov, H.M., Izpisúa-Belmonte, J.C., Gañan, Y., Evans, R.M. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Hepatocyte-specific mutation establishes retinoid X receptor alpha as a heterodimeric integrator of multiple physiological processes in the liver. Wan, Y.J., An, D., Cai, Y., Repa, J.J., Hung-Po Chen, T., Flores, M., Postic, C., Magnuson, M.A., Chen, J., Chien, K.R., French, S., Mangelsdorf, D.J., Sucov, H.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Systematic immunolocalization of retinoid receptors in developing and adult mouse eyes. Mori, M., Ghyselinck, N.B., Chambon, P., Mark, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of a functional peroxisome proliferator-responsive element in the murine fatty acid transport protein gene. Frohnert, B.I., Hui, T.Y., Bernlohr, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Spatial distributions of retinoic acid receptor gene transcripts in the prenatal mouse inner ear. Romand, R., Sapin, V., Dollé, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. In vivo stabilization of nuclear retinoid X receptor alpha in the presence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Tanaka, N., Hora, K., Makishima, H., Kamijo, Y., Kiyosawa, K., Gonzalez, F.J., Aoyama, T. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Activation of myoD gene transcription by 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine: a direct role for the thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptors. Muscat, G.E., Mynett-Johnson, L., Dowhan, D., Downes, M., Griggs, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha with the retinoid X receptor alpha unmasks a cryptic peroxisome proliferator response element that overlaps an ARP-1-binding site in the CYP4A6 promoter. Palmer, C.N., Hsu, M.H., Muerhoff, A.S., Griffin, K.J., Johnson, E.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytosolic and nuclear distribution of PPARgamma2 in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Thuillier, P., Baillie, R., Sha, X., Clarke, S.D. J. Lipid Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential 9-cis-retinoic acid-dependent transcriptional activation by murine retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) and RXR beta. Role of cell type and RXR domains. Hallenbeck, P.L., Minucci, S., Lippoldt, R., Phyillaier, M., Horn, V., Ozato, K., Nikodem, V.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. PPAR gamma 2 regulates adipose expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene. Tontonoz, P., Hu, E., Devine, J., Beale, E.G., Spiegelman, B.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Studies of the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on skeletal and calcium homeostasis and on inhibition of tumor cell growth. Goltzman, D., White, J., Kremer, R. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta expression mediated by MyoD and muscle regulatory factor 4 is differentially affected by retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor. Kim, J.Y., Lee, J.J., Kim, K.S. Exp. Mol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Xenobiotic- and vitamin D-responsive induction of the steroid/bile acid-sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in young and old mice: The role of a gene enhancer in the liver chromatin. Seo, Y.K., Chung, Y.T., Kim, S., Echchgadda, I., Song, C.S., Chatterjee, B. Gene (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Retinoic acid administration and vitamin A status modulate retinoid X receptor alpha and retinoic acid receptor alpha levels in mouse brown adipose tissue. Ribot, J., Felipe, F., Bonet, M.L., Palou, A. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to the promoter of the mouse histone H10 gene and modulate its transcription. Bauer-Hofmann, R., Alonso, A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 gene expression is up-regulated by retinoic acid in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Kamei, Y., Kawada, T., Kazuki, R., Sugimoto, E. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Purification and crystallization of the heterodimeric complex of RARbeta and RXRalpha ligand-binding domains in the active conformation. Pogenberg, V., Guichou, J.F., Bourguet, W. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
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