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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Breast Feeding

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Disease relevance of Breast Feeding


Psychiatry related information on Breast Feeding

  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that for full-term infants, breast-feeding is associated with enhanced stereopsis at age 3.5 y, as is a maternal DHA-rich antenatal diet, irrespective of later infant feeding practice [6].
  • The information will assist physicians and parents in the risk-benefit decision-making process for bupropion treatment during breastfeeding [7].
  • This relation seems to be explained by the prevailing feeding and dietary habits, which result in minimal intake of fluoride in the first 18 months of life during breastfeeding, followed by increasing fluoride ingestion in the following years through consumption of tea, seafish and F-containing magadi salt [8].
  • Factors probably or possibly associated with a decreased risk include ingestion of vitamin D and its metabolites, fluoride levels of 2 ppm or more in drinking water, moderate physical activity, pregnancies and breast feeding, use of thiazide diuretics, and progestogens [9].
  • At six months the association with type of delivery was not significant (P = 0 x 4); only experience of dyspareunia before pregnancy (P < 0 x 0001) and current breastfeeding were significant (P = 0 x 0006) [10].

High impact information on Breast Feeding


Chemical compound and disease context of Breast Feeding


Biological context of Breast Feeding

  • We have identified some data indicating that the effects of breastfeeding and nulliparity are modified by HLA DR4 status, suggesting an interaction between genetic and reproductive risk factors in the aetiology of RA [21].
  • Benefits to public health can be expected by improving the vitamin A status of deficient populations through an appropriate mix of acceptable, affordable, and available programs including promotion of breast-feeding, control of infections, dietary diversification, food fortification, and supplementation [22].
  • METHOD: The extent of maternal and infant transporter blockade was assessed by measurement of platelet levels of 5-HT in 14 breast-feeding mother-infant pairs before and after 6-16 weeks of maternal treatment with sertraline for major depression with postpartum onset [23].
  • For plasma total cholesterol, the set included previous history of breast feeding (versus formula), child's current dietary poly-unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, maternal alcohol and fat consumption, paternal cholesteryl esters, and maternal hematocrit (r = 0.53) [24].
  • Relevance of HLA-DR phenotype and breast-feeding status in age heterogeneity at IDDM onset [25].

Anatomical context of Breast Feeding

  • OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To determine the susceptibility of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) to HIV-1 as breastfeeding is an established route of HIV transmission, although the origin of virus in breastmilk is unclear [26].
  • CONCLUSION: TGF-beta in colostrum may prevent the development of atopic disease during exclusive breast-feeding and promote specific IgA production in human subjects [27].
  • Thyroid function in breast-feeding infants of six lactating mothers receiving methimazole, 20 mg for the first, 10 mg for the second, and 5 mg for an additional 4 months, remained normal [28].
  • Supplementation of formula with 0.36% of total fatty acids as DHA resulted in erythrocyte DHA being maintained at or above breast-fed levels for the entire 30-wk study period, and breast feeding (0.21% DHA) resulted in a modest fall in erythrocyte DHA relative to baseline (day 5) values [29].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of a hydrogel moist wound dressing (Elasto-gel, Southwest Technologies Inc, Baltimore, Md) with the use of breast shells and lanolin cream in the treatment of maternal sore nipples associated with breast-feeding [30].

Associations of Breast Feeding with chemical compounds

  • Cholesterol levels and the breast-feeding mom [31].
  • We investigated in Bogor District, West Java, Indonesia, the effect of an additional daily portion of dark-green leafy vegetables on vitamin A and iron status in women with low haemoglobin concentrations (< 130 g/L) who were breastfeeding a child of 3-17 months [32].
  • We assessed the acceptability, tolerance, and 6-month efficacy of a short regimen of oral zidovudine in African populations practising breastfeeding [33].
  • We examined the association between breastfeeding and NIDDM in a population with a high prevalence of this disorder, the Pima Indians [34].
  • An important natural antibiotic system is missing in formula feeds; the addition of xanthine oxidase may improve formula for use when breastfeeding is not a safe option [35].

Gene context of Breast Feeding

  • CONCLUSION: This analysis shows that the dose of TGF-beta1 received from milk has a significant relationship with infant wheeze, which might account for at least some of the protective effect of breast-feeding against wheeze [36].
  • Varying concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 may explain some of the controversy regarding the possible allergy-preventive effect of breast-feeding [37].
  • There was a highly significant inverse correlation between mean PRL and SRIH levels during the first 30 min of breast feeding (r = -0.996, P less than 0.001) [38].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In general, OC use, childbearing and breastfeeding do not differ between BRCA1/2 carriers and non-carriers with ovarian cancer [39].
  • A descriptive comparison study was undertaken on 12 fully breastfeeding women (B/F), 12 age-matched control women (CTRL), and seven postnatal women who had chosen to bottle-feed their infants (BOTTLE) [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Breast Feeding

  • RESULTS: Using a multivariate model that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, and other hormonal factors, we observed a strong trend for decreasing risk of RA with increasing duration of breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001) [41].
  • To determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of breast-feeding mothers increases the DHA contents of breast milk and infant plasma phospholipids (PPs), breast-feeding women were randomly assigned to 3 DHA-supplementation groups (170-260 mg/d) or a control group [42].
  • Women with IDDM were able to establish lactation despite postpartum separation from their infants, delays in the start of breast-feeding, reduced frequency of feeding, increased use of supplemental feedings, and the high rate of cesarean section [43].
  • Multivariable models adjusting for demographic variables, breast feeding, month of illness, number of siblings, and attendance at day care showed an increase in the rate of all RI in infants older than 7 mo of age who had a parental history of asthma (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.09 to 1.41) or a parental history of atopy (OR = 1.14, CI = 1.03 to 1.26) [44].
  • Ranges of total serum bilirubin concentration were provided as possible answers to questions on initiation of phototherapy and exchange transfusion, and interruption of breastfeeding [45].


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