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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L9GN7     (3S)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6- trimethyl-1...

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Disease relevance of retinol

  • The mean base-line retinol level in the 18 subjects with subsequent lung cancer was higher than that in their matched controls (79.0 vs. 71.4 micrograms per deciliter, -4.9 to 19.7) [1].
  • The plasma retinol transport system was studied in three patients with chronic hypervitaminosis A [2].
  • Therefore, we measured retinol, retinol-binding protein, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), and total carotenoids in serum collected in 1973 from 111 participants in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program who were free of cancer at the time but were diagnosed as having cancer during the subsequent five years [1].
  • Effect of stanozolol in patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris and retinol-binding protein deficiency [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term intake of a diet high in retinol may promote the development of osteoporotic hip fractures in women [4].

Psychiatry related information on retinol

  • Isolation of an olfactory cDNA: similarity to retinol-binding protein suggests a role in olfaction [5].
  • Retinol has no effect and retinal has a small inhibitory effect but neither phenotypic transformation nor axial disorientation were observed [6].
  • Chromatographic profiles indicated that an approximately 27-kDa MMPI was specifically increased in the CM of retinol-treated cells, whereas a 22-18.5-kDa MMPI was increased in CM derived from retinoic acid-treated cells [7].
  • It is, however, complicated by the intrinsic hepatotoxicity of retinol, which is potentiated by concomitant alcohol consumption [8].
  • Thus, the use of large doses of retinol in the treatment of some human diseases and the use of megavitamin therapy for certain chronic disorders as well as the growing tendency toward vitamin faddism should alert physicians to the possibility of vitamin overdose [9].

High impact information on retinol

  • The proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum associated with 2E1 induction is also accompanied by enhanced activity of other cytochrome P-450s, resulting in accelerated metabolism of, and tolerance to, other drugs, as well as increased degradation of retinol and its hepatic depletion [10].
  • When expressed in COS-7 cells, Cys226 and Met49 variants had diminished and aberrant activity, respectively, in interconverting isomers of retinol and retinal [11].
  • The gene Rpe65 is specifically expressed in the PE and essential for the re-isomerization of all-trans retinol in the visual cycle and thus for the regeneration of rhodopsin after bleaching [12].
  • This microsomal enzyme is abundant in the retinal pigment epithelium, where it has been proposed to catalyse the conversion of 11-cis retinol to 11-cis retinal [13].
  • Although the function of RPE65 is not yet known, an important role in the RPE/photoreceptor vitamin-A cycle is suggested by the fact that RPE65 associates both with serum retinol-binding protein and with the RPE-specific 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme active in the synthesis of the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of retinol


Biological context of retinol


Anatomical context of retinol


Associations of retinol with other chemical compounds

  • Although retinol in the blood might well be truly protective, this would be of little immediate value without discovery of the important external determinants of blood retinol which (in developed countries) do not include dietary retinol or beta-carotene [27].
  • 14-hydroxy-retroretinol (14HRR) is a metabolic product of retinol in lymphocytes, and this retinoid effectively supports T cell activation in conjunction with a mitogen in lieu of retinol [28].
  • In this report we describe the identification of three endogenous, retinolderived effector molecules, 14-hydroxy-retro-retinol (14-HRR), anhydroretinol (AR), and retinoic acid (RA) and a putative storage form of retinol, retinylesters (RE) in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 [29].
  • Anhydroretinol (AR) is a retinol derivative with retro structure produced in activated human B lymphocytes and the insect cell lines SF 21 and Schneider S2 [30].
  • However, in a serum-free medium formulated to contain, in addition to basic ingredients, insulin, transferrin, albumin, linoleic acid (ITLB), and retinol, proliferation is vigorous [28].

Gene context of retinol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of retinol

  • Epidemiologic studies suggest that low carotene intake and low levels of serum retinol may be associated with an increased risk of cancer [1].
  • Radiolabeled all-trans retinol and high-performance liquid chromatography have now been used to demonstrate the existence of an eye-specific, membrane-bound enzyme (retinol isomerase) that converts all-trans to 11-cis retinol in the dark [26].
  • The identification is based on the close similarities of the factor isolated from serum with authentic all-trans retinol as revealed by mass spectrometry, HPLC chromatography, and the ability to stimulate the growth of lymphoblastoid cells in the bioassay [35].
  • In conclusion, human B cells are critically dependent for optimal growth in cell culture on an external supply of retinol [35].
  • The combined results from the case-control studies of Peleg, Stähelin, and Willett were found to provide no evidence of a relationship between serum retinol levels and the risk of cancer in all sites combined or of lung cancer [36].


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  2. Vitamin A transport in human vitamin A toxicity. Smith, F.R., Goodman, D.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of stanozolol in patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris and retinol-binding protein deficiency. Bergamaschini, L., Tucci, A., Colombo, A., Agostoni, A., Finzi, A.G., Altomare, G.F., Pigatto, P.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. Feskanich, D., Singh, V., Willett, W.C., Colditz, G.A. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation of an olfactory cDNA: similarity to retinol-binding protein suggests a role in olfaction. Lee, K.H., Wells, R.G., Reed, R.R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanism of skin morphogenesis. II. Retinoic acid modulates axis orientation and phenotypes of skin appendages. Chuong, C.M., Ting, S.A., Widelitz, R.B., Lee, Y.S. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
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  8. Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: adverse interactions, including hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Leo, M.A., Lieber, C.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Vitamin A and infancy. Biochemical, functional, and clinical aspects. Perrotta, S., Nobili, B., Rossi, F., Di Pinto, D., Cucciolla, V., Borriello, A., Oliva, A., Della Ragione, F. Vitam. Horm. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytochrome P-4502E1: its physiological and pathological role. Lieber, C.S. Physiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in RDH12 encoding a photoreceptor cell retinol dehydrogenase cause childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Janecke, A.R., Thompson, D.A., Utermann, G., Becker, C., Hübner, C.A., Schmid, E., McHenry, C.L., Nair, A.R., Rüschendorf, F., Heckenlively, J., Wissinger, B., Nürnberg, P., Gal, A. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Protection of Rpe65-deficient mice identifies rhodopsin as a mediator of light-induced retinal degeneration. Grimm, C., Wenzel, A., Hafezi, F., Yu, S., Redmond, T.M., Remé, C.E. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus. Yamamoto, H., Simon, A., Eriksson, U., Harris, E., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutations in RPE65 cause autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Gu, S.M., Thompson, D.A., Srikumari, C.R., Lorenz, B., Finckh, U., Nicoletti, A., Murthy, K.R., Rathmann, M., Kumaramanickavel, G., Denton, M.J., Gal, A. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of 2-fluorenamine-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium by vitamin A. Baird, M.B., Birnbaum, L.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. All-trans retinoic acid converts E2F into a transcriptional suppressor and inhibits the growth of normal human bronchial epithelial cells through a retinoic acid receptor- dependent signaling pathway. Lee, H.Y., Dohi, D.F., Kim, Y.H., Walsh, G.L., Consoli, U., Andreeff, M., Dawson, M.I., Hong, W.K., Kurie, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Dietary beta carotene and lung cancer risk in U.S. nonsmokers. Mayne, S.T., Janerich, D.T., Greenwald, P., Chorost, S., Tucci, C., Zaman, M.B., Melamed, M.R., Kiely, M., McKneally, M.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Serologic precursors of cancer. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer. Hsing, A.W., Comstock, G.W., Abbey, H., Polk, B.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Support for the multigenic hypothesis of amyloidosis: the binding stoichiometry of retinol-binding protein, vitamin A, and thyroid hormone influences transthyretin amyloidogenicity in vitro. White, J.T., Kelly, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Sequence analysis, cellular localization, and expression of a neuroretina adhesion and cell survival molecule. Berman, P., Gray, P., Chen, E., Keyser, K., Ehrlich, D., Karten, H., LaCorbiere, M., Esch, F., Schubert, D. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of a membrane protein binding the retinol in retinal pigment epithelium. Maraini, G., Ottonello, S., Gozzoli, F., Merli, A. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. The structure of beta-lactoglobulin and its similarity to plasma retinol-binding protein. Papiz, M.Z., Sawyer, L., Eliopoulos, E.E., North, A.C., Findlay, J.B., Sivaprasadarao, R., Jones, T.A., Newcomer, M.E., Kraulis, P.J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Interphotoreceptor retinol-binding proteins: possible transport vehicles between compartments of the retina. Lai, Y.L., Wiggert, B., Liu, Y.P., Chader, G.J. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Intracellular signaling by 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol. Buck, J., Derguini, F., Levi, E., Nakanishi, K., Hämmerling, U. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of retinol-binding protein metabolism in cultured rat liver cell lines. Smith, J.E., Borek, C., Goodman, D.S. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. The visual cycle operates via an isomerase acting on all-trans retinol in the pigment epithelium. Bridges, C.D., Alvarez, R.A. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Peto, R., Doll, R., Buckley, J.D., Sporn, M.B. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Retinoids are important cofactors in T cell activation. Garbe, A., Buck, J., Hämmerling, U. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Growth control or terminal differentiation: endogenous production and differential activities of vitamin A metabolites in HL-60 cells. Eppinger, T.M., Buck, J., Hämmerling, U. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Anhydroretinol: a naturally occurring inhibitor of lymphocyte physiology. Buck, J., Grün, F., Derguini, F., Chen, Y., Kimura, S., Noy, N., Hämmerling, U. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Serum prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, transferrin, and albumin levels in patients with large bowel cancer. Milano, G., Cooper, E.H., Goligher, J.C., Giles, G.R., Neville, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  32. A chick neural retina adhesion and survival molecule is a retinol-binding protein. Schubert, D., LaCorbiere, M., Esch, F. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Mast cells as targets of corticotropin-releasing factor and related peptides. Theoharides, T.C., Donelan, J.M., Papadopoulou, N., Cao, J., Kempuraj, D., Conti, P. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Rat cellular retinol-binding protein II: use of a cloned cDNA to define its primary structure, tissue-specific expression, and developmental regulation. Li, E., Demmer, L.A., Sweetser, D.A., Ong, D.E., Gordon, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Retinol is essential for growth of activated human B cells. Buck, J., Ritter, G., Dannecker, L., Katta, V., Cohen, S.L., Chait, B.T., Hämmerling, U. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
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