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Chemical Compound Review

MOLI000770     ethanoate

Synonyms: AC1L9OV4
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Disease relevance of acetic acid

  • Mice fed a semipurified, vitamin A-deficient diet (A- mice) and control animals fed the same diet with added retinyl acetate (A+ mice) were used to investigate the effect of vitamin A deficiency on primary immunoglobulin responses to protein antigens [1].
  • Administration of lower doses of AA (2.5 mmol/kg of body weight) had no effect on CC and CE mAChRs, while an increase in non-M1 and a decrease in M1 receptors was observed in the PM [2].

High impact information on acetic acid

  • Their IgG1 response was less than 30% and their IgG3 response less than 3% of A+ controls [1].
  • The IgG1 response kinetics were identical in A- and A+ mice [1].
  • Diminished serum antibody responses in A- mice were attributable to fewer immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells rather than to a decline in IgM or IgG secretion rate per cell [1].
  • The inefficient clonal expansion of responding B lymphocytes and contrasting impairment of IgM and IgG responses observed in vitamin A-deficient mice are discussed with respect to a possible helper/inducer-T-lymphocyte defect [1].
  • Saturation mutagenesis of the CLE0 element indicates that in addition to the previously mapped region between -73 and -91 (CLE2+ GC box), the CLE0 element is necessary for induction of the mouse GM-CSF gene by phorbol myristate acetate/Ca ionophore (A23187) stimulation in T cells [3].

Biological context of acetic acid


Anatomical context of acetic acid

  • These results indicate that the essential moieties of ACA for apoptotic activity against HL-60 cells are both the presence of a 4-acetoxyl group and an unsaturated double bond between C-2' and C-3', and that the configuration at the 1'-position is unrelated to activity [8].
  • When supplied with ethanoate labelled with carbon-13 in the methyl group, the alga incorporated it into fatty acids with retention of the sequence of labelling on alternate carbon atoms, thus providing a convenient method for synthesising lipids in a form useful for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of lipids in situ in membranes [9].
  • Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were seeded on flat sheet membranes made of Cellulose Acetate (CA), aminated Cellulose Acetate (aCA), polysulfone (PSf) and sulfonated polysulfone (sPSf) and incubated in Hank's Balanced Salts Solutions (HBSS) as well as in William's E medium supplemented with newborn calf serum [10].

Associations of acetic acid with other chemical compounds

  • Among these compounds cycloheximide-N-(ethyl ethanoate) (10, K(i) = 4.1 microM), which exerted FKBP12 inhibition to an extent comparable to that of cycloheximide (1), was found to cause an approximately 1000-fold weaker inhibitory effect on eukaryotic protein synthesis (IC(50) = 115 microM) [5].
  • The rank order of anionic permeability was: SCN- > I- > NO3- > Br- > Cl- > formate (For-) > HCO3- > acetate (Ac-) approximately proprionate (Prop-) approximately isethionate (Ise-) approximately F- approximately PO4-. 3 [11].
  • Third, BrdUrd incorporation level of plasma cells was measured on AMCA images inside PI nuclei masks and stored [12].
  • SDS dissolved up to 80% of the vitelline coat protein content whereas 100 mM Ammonimum acetate (AA) at pH 11 and 1 mM lithium diiodosalicylate (LISH) dissolved only 40-50% [13].
  • Structure-activity relationships of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) for apoptotic activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells were investigated using optically active ACA and various racemic ACA analogues [8].

Gene context of acetic acid

  • In addition to pharmacological induction by TPA + A23187, TIS10/PGS-2 message is also induced by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta) [14].
  • These results suggest that ACA, ZER, and BITC suppress iNOS/COX-2 gene expression mainly by attenuating IkappaB degradation, while other chemopreventive agents use alternative pathway(s) to suppress the expression of proinflammatory genes [15].
  • In addition, AXE decreased PMA plus A23187-induced degradation of IkappaBalphaand the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB [16].
  • When immunized with a single antigen dose, these mice produced an antigen-specific IgM response equivalent to controls, but their IgG1 and IgG3 responses were sharply diminished (less than 30% of A+ controls) [1].
  • The T cell leukemia cell lines Jurkat, HuT-78, CCRF-CEM, and Molt-4 showed reduced to absent ability to phosphorylate prosolin peptides rapidly in response to A23187 and also showed diminished down-regulation of DNA synthesis [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acetic acid

  • We studied the effects of acetate (Ac), the buffer in crystalloids used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (e.g. Normosol-R and Plasma-Lyte, Ac = 27mEq/l), on coronary resistance (R) for the empty beating heart, and on vascular resistance (SVR) of 19 dogs on CPB [17].


  1. Contrasting impairments in IgM and IgG responses of vitamin A-deficient mice. Smith, S.M., Hayes, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Region-specific changes in CNS muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in a rat model of hyperammonemia. Rukmini Devi, R.P., Murthy, C.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of the mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene promoter: nuclear factors that interact with an element shared by three lymphokine genes--those for GM-CSF, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5. Miyatake, S., Shlomai, J., Arai, K., Arai, N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. A specific defect of prosolin phosphorylation in T cell leukemic lymphoblasts is associated with impaired down-regulation of DNA synthesis. Cooper, H.L., Fuldner, R., McDuffie, E., Braverman, R. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of cycloheximide derivatives as potential inhibitors of FKBP12 with neuroregenerative properties. Christner, C., Wyrwa, R., Marsch, S., Küllertz, G., Thiericke, R., Grabley, S., Schumann, D., Fischer, G. J. Med. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Ammonium decreases excitatory synaptic transmission in cat spinal cord in vivo. Raabe, W. J. Neurophysiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of NH4+ on reflexes in cat spinal cord. Raabe, W. J. Neurophysiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of optically active 1'-acetoxychavicol acetates and their structure-activity relationships in apoptotic activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells. Azuma, H., Miyasaka, K., Yokotani, T., Tachibana, T., Kojima-Yuasa, A., Matsui-Yuasa, I., Ogino, K. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The production of lipids alternately labelled with carbon-13. Boyle-Roden, E., German, J.B., Wood, B.J. Biomol. Eng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Attachment and metabolic activity of hepatocytes cultivated on selected polymeric membranes. Jóźwiak, A., Karlik, W., Wiechetek, M., Weryński, A. The International journal of artificial organs. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Permeability and single channel conductance of human homomeric rho1 GABAC receptors. Wotring, V.E., Chang, Y., Weiss, D.S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Methods for cell proliferation analysis by fluorescent image cytometry. Souchier, C., Ffrench, M., Benchaib, M., Catallo, R., Bryon, P.A. Cytometry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Vitelline coat of Unio elongatulus egg: I. Isolation and biochemical characterization. Focarelli, R., Rosati, F. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. TGF-beta 1 augments expression of the TIS10/prostaglandin synthase-2 gene in intestinal epithelial cells. Gilbert, R.S., Reddy, S.T., Targan, S., Herschman, H.R. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of selected food factors with chemopreventive properties on combined lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-induced IkappaB degradation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Murakami, A., Matsumoto, K., Koshimizu, K., Ohigashi, H. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Amomum xanthiodes inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production. Kim, S.H., Shin, T.Y. Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Current priming solutions for cardiopulmonary bypass contain a potent coronary vasodilator. Tamari, Y., Tortolani, J.A., Maguine, M., Czegledy, F. Perfusion (1990) [Pubmed]
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