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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nebivolol in the management of essential hypertension: a review.

Nebivolol is a lipophilic beta1-blocker. It is devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilising activity but appears to have nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory effects. Nebivolol is administered as a racemic mixture of equal proportions of d- and l-enantiomers. The drug does not significantly influence glucose or plasma lipid metabolism and appears to have a protective effect on left ventricular function. At the recommended dosage (5 mg once daily) nebivolol reduces resting diastolic blood pressure as effectively as standard therapeutic dosages of atenolol, metoprolol, lisinopril and nifedipine, as shown in comparative trials. Nebivolol reduced blood pressure significantly more than enalapril 10 mg daily in the short but not the long term, although the enalapril dose may not have been optimal. Nebivolol has an additive effect in combination with hydrochlorothiazide. Standing blood pressure and/or mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is significantly and similarly reduced with nebivolol, atenolol or nifedipine. Nebivolol tended to prevent increases in early morning blood pressure better than nifedipine. Overall response rates to nebivolol therapy (a decrease in sitting/supine diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mm Hg or a 10% or > or = 10 mm Hg fall in diastolic blood pressure) ranged from 58 to 81% after 4 to 52 weeks' treatment. In comparative studies, response rates were greater in nebivolol than in enalapril or metoprolol recipients, but not significantly different from those in atenolol or nifedipine recipients. Nebivolol 5 mg once daily is well tolerated in patients with hypertension. Adverse events are infrequent, transient and mild to moderate. Those reported most often include headache, fatigue, paraesthesias and dizziness. Several studies reported no signs of orthostatic hypotension with nebivolol. Comparative trials revealed no significant differences between the frequency and severity of adverse events in patients receiving nebivolol, atenolol, enalapril or placebo; however, the overall incidence of adverse events was greater with nifedipine or metoprolol. Some atenolol or enalapril, but not nebivolol, recipients reported impotence or decreased libido during therapy. CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicates that nebivolol 5 mg once daily is a well tolerated beta-blocker, which is as effective as once daily atenolol and other classes of antihypertensive agents. It may therefore be recommended as a useful alternative first-line treatment option for the management of patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated essential hypertension.[1]


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