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Chemical Compound Review

Renitek     (2S)-1-[(2S)-2-[[(1R)-1- ethoxycarbonyl-3...

Synonyms: Gadopril, Bonuten, Vasotec, enalapril, Enalaprila, ...
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Disease relevance of enalapril


Psychiatry related information on enalapril


High impact information on enalapril

  • At one year, enalapril therapy was associated with significant reductions from base line in systolic blood pressure (by a mean [+/-SD] of 5.0+/-17.1 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (3.6+/-10.6 mm Hg) among the white patients, but not among the black patients [11].
  • To address this issue, we pooled and analyzed data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, two large, randomized trials comparing enalapril with placebo in patients with left ventricular dysfunction [11].
  • METHODS: We studied muscle sympathetic-nerve activity in 14 patients with hypertension, chronic renal failure, and increased plasma renin activity before, during, and after administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril [5].
  • Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10 to 40 mg per day) with the possible addition or substitution of enalapril (5 to 20 mg per day) or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 to 25 mg per day) or both, titrated to reduce the systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg and to less than 150 mm Hg [12].
  • RESULTS: As compared with placebo, bosentan resulted in a significant reduction in diastolic pressure with a daily dose of 500 or 2000 mg (an absolute reduction of 5.7 mm Hg at each dose), which was similar to the reduction with enalapril (5.8 mm Hg) [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of enalapril


Biological context of enalapril


Anatomical context of enalapril


Associations of enalapril with other chemical compounds


Gene context of enalapril


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of enalapril


  1. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. Estacio, R.O., Jeffers, B.W., Hiatt, W.R., Biggerstaff, S.L., Gifford, N., Schrier, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevalence and pathologic features of sickle cell nephropathy and response to inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Falk, R.J., Scheinman, J., Phillips, G., Orringer, E., Johnson, A., Jennette, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of the early administration of enalapril on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Results of the Cooperative New Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study II (CONSENSUS II). Swedberg, K., Held, P., Kjekshus, J., Rasmussen, K., Rydén, L., Wedel, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Prognostic importance of elevated jugular venous pressure and a third heart sound in patients with heart failure. Drazner, M.H., Rame, J.E., Stevenson, L.W., Dries, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduction of sympathetic hyperactivity by enalapril in patients with chronic renal failure. Ligtenberg, G., Blankestijn, P.J., Oey, P.L., Klein, I.H., Dijkhorst-Oei, L.T., Boomsma, F., Wieneke, G.H., van Huffelen, A.C., Koomans, H.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Skeletal muscle changes in patients with chronic heart failure before and after treatment with enalapril. Schaufelberger, M., Andersson, G., Eriksson, B.O., Grimby, G., Held, P., Swedberg, K. Eur. Heart J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Neonatal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in the rat induces persistent abnormalities in renal function and histology. Guron, G., Adams, M.A., Sundelin, B., Friberg, P. Hypertension (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Enalapril effects on alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors in alcoholics. Naranjo, C.A., Kadlec, K.E., Sanhueza, P., Woodley-Remus, D., Sellers, E.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. A comparison of enalapril 20 mg once daily versus 10 mg twice daily in terms of blood pressure lowering and patient compliance. Girvin, B., McDermott, B.J., Johnston, G.D. J. Hypertens. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Nebivolol in the management of essential hypertension: a review. McNeely, W., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Lesser response to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor therapy in black as compared with white patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Exner, D.V., Dries, D.L., Domanski, M.J., Cohn, J.N. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. Tuomilehto, J., Rastenyte, D., Birkenhäger, W.H., Thijs, L., Antikainen, R., Bulpitt, C.J., Fletcher, A.E., Forette, F., Goldhaber, A., Palatini, P., Sarti, C., Fagard, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of an endothelin-receptor antagonist, bosentan, on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Bosentan Hypertension Investigators. Krum, H., Viskoper, R.J., Lacourciere, Y., Budde, M., Charlon, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men. A comparison of captopril with enalapril. The Quality-of-Life Hypertension Study Group. Testa, M.A., Anderson, R.B., Nackley, J.F., Hollenberg, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Chronic caffeine administration exacerbates renovascular, but not genetic, hypertension in rats. Ohnishi, A., Branch, R.A., Jackson, K., Hamilton, R., Biaggioni, I., Deray, G., Jackson, E.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Improved exercise tolerance after losartan and enalapril in heart failure: correlation with changes in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain composition. Vescovo, G., Dalla Libera, L., Serafini, F., Leprotti, C., Facchin, L., Volterrani, M., Ceconi, C., Ambrosio, G.B. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Enalapril pharmacokinetics in diabetic patients. Baba, T., Tomiyama, T., Murabayashi, S., Tomiyama, M., Takebe, K. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute hemodynamic interaction of aspirin and ticlopidine with enalapril: results of a double-blind, randomized comparative trial. Spaulding, C., Charbonnier, B., Cohen-Solal, A., Juillière, Y., Kromer, E.P., Benhamda, K., Cador, R., Weber, S. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Hemodynamic and clinical response to enalapril, a long-acting converting-enzyme inhibitor, in patients with congestive heart failure. Levine, T.B., Olivari, M.T., Garberg, V., Sharkey, S.W., Cohn, J.N. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Schuh, J.R., Blehm, D.J., Frierdich, G.E., McMahon, E.G., Blaine, E.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition ameliorates glomerular filtration of macromolecules and water and lessens glomerular injury in the rat. Remuzzi, A., Puntorieri, S., Battaglia, C., Bertani, T., Remuzzi, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Reversible acute renal failure during enalapril treatment in patient with chronic glomerulonephritis without renal artery stenosis. Brivet, F., Roulot, D., Poitrine, A., Dormont, J. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with high-dose enalapril retards nitrate tolerance in large epicardial arteries and prevents rebound coronary vasoconstriction in vivo. Münzel, T., Bassenge, E. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Enalapril treatment increases cardiac performance and energy reserve via the creatine kinase reaction in myocardium of Syrian myopathic hamsters with advanced heart failure. Nascimben, L., Friedrich, J., Liao, R., Pauletto, P., Pessina, A.C., Ingwall, J.S. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Captopril, enalapril, and quality of life. Santanello, N.C., Guess, H., Heyse, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative effects of chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction in the rat. Schieffer, B., Wirger, A., Meybrunn, M., Seitz, S., Holtz, J., Riede, U.N., Drexler, H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Relevance of blockade of cardiac and circulatory angiotensin-converting enzyme for the prevention of volume overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Ruzicka, M., Leenen, F.H. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation by patients with heart failure of the effects of enalapril compared with hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate on quality of life. V-HeFT II. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Rector, T.S., Johnson, G., Dunkman, W.B., Daniels, G., Farrell, L., Henrick, A., Smith, B., Cohn, J.N. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Enhanced atherosclerosis and kidney dysfunction in eNOS(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice are ameliorated by enalapril treatment. Knowles, J.W., Reddick, R.L., Jennette, J.C., Shesely, E.G., Smithies, O., Maeda, N. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Treatment of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats With Rosiglitazone and/or Enalapril Restores Balance Between Vasodilator and Vasoconstrictor Actions of Insulin With Simultaneous Improvement in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance. Potenza, M.A., Marasciulo, F.L., Tarquinio, M., Quon, M.J., Montagnani, M. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition reduces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue factor levels in patients with myocardial infarction. Soejima, H., Ogawa, H., Yasue, H., Kaikita, K., Takazoe, K., Nishiyama, K., Misumi, K., Miyamoto, S., Yoshimura, M., Kugiyama, K., Nakamura, S., Tsuji, I. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of enalapril on erythrocytosis after renal transplantation. Gaston, R.S., Julian, B.A., Diethelm, A.G., Curtis, J.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of enalapril on ventricular remodeling and function during healing after anterior myocardial infarction in the dog. Jugdutt, B.I., Khan, M.I., Jugdutt, S.J., Blinston, G.E. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Comparative effects of enalapril and verapamil on myocardial blood flow in systemic hypertension. Parodi, O., Neglia, D., Palombo, C., Sambuceti, G., Giorgetti, A., Marabotti, C., Gallopin, M., Simonetti, I., L'Abbate, A. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
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