The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-chloro-m-cresol triggers malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine at doses greatly exceeding those found in drug preparations.

BACKGROUND: Chlorocresols are used as preservatives in numerous commercial drugs that have been shown to induce myoplasmic Ca2+ release; the most potent isoform is 4-chloro-m-cresol. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the in vivo effects of 4-chloro-m-cresol on swine susceptible to malignant hyperthermia and (2) contrast in vivo versus in vitro dose-response curves. METHODS: Susceptible swine (weight: 38.5 kg+/-3.55 kg) were anesthetized and monitored for variations in physiological responses, including end-tidal CO2, heart rate, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and temperatures. In the first animals studied, 4-chloro-m-cresol, at equivalent cumulative doses of 0.14, 0.28, 0.57, 1.14, 2.27, 4.54, and 9.08 mg/kg (n = 3; 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 micromol) were administered, and in a second group, larger doses were used: 1.14, 3.41, 7.95, 17.04 (n = 4), and/or 35.22 (n = 1) mg/kg (100, 300, 700, 1,500, and/or 3,100 micromol). For comparison, in vitro rectus abdominis muscle preparations obtained from normal and susceptible swine were exposed to 4-chloro-m-cresol, at cumulative concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 micromol; standard caffeine and halothane contracture testing was also performed. RESULTS: Episodes of malignant hyperthermia were not triggered in response to administration of low doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol, but transient cardiovascular reactions (e.g., tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypotension) were observed. Subsequently, episodes in these animals were triggered when halothane (0.87; 1 MAC) and succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) were given. Animals administered the higher doses of 4-chloro-m-cresol all had fulminant episodes of malignant hyperthermia that were fatal, when equivalent cumulative concentrations were greater than 1,500 micromol. The levels of 4-chloro-m-cresol in the plasma rapidly decreased: e.g., 5 min postadministration of the 1,500-micromol dose, the mean plasma level was only 52+/-18 micromol (n = 4). Hemolysis was detected following 4-chloro-m-cresol administration at concentrations > 200 micromol. In vitro, muscle from susceptible animals elicited contractures > 200 mg at 50-micromol bath concentrations of 4-chloro-m-cresol (n = 29), whereas normal muscle did not elicit such contractures until bath concentrations were > 800 micromol (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: 4-chloro-m-cresol is a trigger of malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine, but only when serum concentrations are far above those likely to be encountered in humans. A relatively low concentration of 4-chloro-m-cresol, 50 micromol, is sufficient to activate sarcoplasmic [Ca+2] release in vitro (e.g., contractures); this same bolus dose administered in vivo (0.57 mg/kg) has minimal effects due to the rapid decrease in its plasma levels.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities