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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of Ras.GTP loading and Ras-Raf association in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by G protein-coupled receptor agonists and phorbol ester. Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade by phorbol ester is mediated by Ras.

The small G protein Ras has been implicated in hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. We therefore examined the activation (GTP loading) of Ras by the following hypertrophic agonists: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and phenylephrine (PE). All three increased Ras.GTP loading by 10-15-fold (maximal in 1-2 min), as did bradykinin. Other G protein-coupled receptor agonists (e.g. angiotensin II, carbachol, isoproterenol) were less effective. Activation of Ras by PMA, ET-1, or PE was reduced by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), and that induced by ET-1 or PE was partly sensitive to pertussis toxin. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (CPT-cAMP) did not inhibit Ras.GTP loading by PMA, ET-1, or PE. The association of Ras with c-Raf protein was increased by PMA, ET-1, or PE, and this was inhibited by CPT-cAMP. However, only PMA and ET-1 increased Ras- associated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1-activating activity, and this was decreased by PKC inhibition, pertussis toxin, and CPT-cAMP. PMA caused the rapid appearance of phosphorylated (activated) extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the nucleus, which was inhibited by a microinjected neutralizing anti-Ras antibody. We conclude that PKC- and Gi-dependent mechanisms mediate the activation of Ras in myocytes and that Ras activation is required for stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by PMA.[1]


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