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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential effects of angiotensin II on cardiorespiratory reflexes mediated by nucleus tractus solitarii - a microinjection study in the rat.

1. The effect of microinjecting angiotensin II (ANGII) into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on both baroreceptor and peripheral chemoreceptor reflexes was compared. 2. Experiments were performed in a working heart-brainstem preparation of rat. Baroreceptors were stimulated by raising perfusion pressure and chemoreceptors were activated with aortic injections of sodium cyanide (0.025 %, 25-75 microl). Reflex changes in phrenic nerve activity and heart rate were measured after bilateral NTS microinjection (50 nl) of ANGII (0.5-5000 fmol). 3. NTS microinjection of 5 fmol ANGII elicited a transient (28.2 +/- 6 s; mean +/- s.e.m.) bradycardia (-18 +/- 3 beats min-1), and decreased phrenic nerve activity cycle length and amplitude (P < 0.05). At higher doses of ANGII a similar respiratory response was seen but heart rate changes were inconsistent. 4. The baroreceptor reflex bradycardia was depressed significantly by NTS microinjections of ANGII (5-5000 fmol) in a dose-dependent manner with the reflex gain decreasing from 1.7 +/- 0.16 to 0.66 +/- 0.1 beats min-1 mmHg-1 (P < 0.01) at 5000 fmol. Although the chemoreceptor reflex bradycardia was depressed at a low dose of ANGII (5 fmol), all higher doses (50-5000 fmol) produced a dose-dependent potentiation of the reflex bradycardia (maximally +64 +/- 8 %). The respiratory component was unaffected. The effects of ANGII on both reflexes were blocked by an ANGII type 1 ( AT1) receptor antagonist, losartan (20 microM). 5. The potentiating action of ANGII on the chemoreceptor reflex cardiac response was abolished by a neurokinin type 1 (NK1) receptor blocker (CP-99,994, 5 microM) but this had no effect on the baroreceptor reflex. 6. AT1 receptors in the NTS can depress the baroreceptor reflex bradycardia which is independent of NK1 receptors. The ANGII effect on the cardiac component of the chemoreceptor reflex is bi-directional being inhibited at low concentrations and potentiated at higher concentrations; the latter involves NK1 receptors and presumably results from release of substance P.[1]


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