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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Insulin resistance in fat cells from obese Zucker rats--evidence for an impaired activation and translocation of protein kinase B and glucose transporter 4.

The effect of insulin on glucose transport, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) translocation, and intracellular signaling were measured in fat cells from lean and obese Zucker rats of different ages. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was markedly reduced in adipocytes from old and obese animals. The protein content of Glut4 and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) 1 and 2 were also reduced while other proteins, including the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase, Shc and the MAP kinases (ERK1 and 2) were essentially unchanged. There was a marked impairment in the insulin stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and 2 as well as activation of PI3-kinase and PKB in cells from old and obese animals. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated translocation of both Glut4 and PKB to the plasma membrane was virtually abolished. The phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, vanadate, increased the insulin-stimulated upstream signaling including PI3-kinase and PKB activities as well as rate of glucose transport. Thus, the insulin resistance in cells from old and obese Zucker rats can be accounted for by an impaired translocation process, due to signaling defects leading to a reduced activation of PI3-kinase and PKB, as well as an attenuated Glut4 protein content.[1]


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