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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of seizures and kindling on reproductive hormones in the rat.

Reproductive dysfunction and endocrine disorders are common among both women and men with epilepsy, and, in particular, with temporal lobe epilepsy. In clinical studies, it is hard to separate the effects of seizures from the effects of medication and life style. Studies in rodents, however, suggest that seizures per se can contribute to reproductive dysfunction. In female rats, generalized seizures disrupt normal ovarian cyclicity in adults, and repeated electroshock seizures delay the onset of puberty in juveniles. Right amygdala kindling in adult female rats causes acyclicity, the development of polycystic ovaries and premature aging of the hypothalamic-pituitary neuroendocrine axis, leading to chronic anovulation and continuous estrogen exposure. In adult male rats, repeated electroshock seizures result in transient hypogonadism, characterized by decreased serum testosterone levels and lowered gonadal tissue weight. In contrast, right amygdala kindling increases serum testosterone, estradiol levels and gonadal weight. These findings suggest that reproductive dysfunction in women and men with epilepsy may result from recurrent seizure activity, due to seizure-related interference with the normal functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.[1]


  1. The effect of seizures and kindling on reproductive hormones in the rat. Edwards, H.E., MacLusky, N.J., Burnham, W.M. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
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