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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Anovulation


Psychiatry related information on Anovulation

  • It is proposed that these closely interlinked phenomena that, particularly in overweight subjects, are associated with anovulation, may confer a biological advantage for women with PCOS at times of food deprivation, when such women may reproduce more successfully than those without PCOS [5].

High impact information on Anovulation

  • We administered pulsatile low doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (1 to 5 micrograms) to patients whose anovulation was caused by relative and absolute deficiency of endogenous GnRH [6].
  • These data indicate that in these PCO patients the abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of gonadotropin secretion was not an inherent defect but represented a functional derangement consequent to inappropriate estrogen feedback, which led to a vicious cycle of chronic anovulation and inappropriate gonadotropin secretion [7].
  • It has been shown previously that female mice homozygous for an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) null allele are sterile as a result of anovulation, probably due to a defect in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis [8].
  • CONTEXT: For the last 40 yr, the first line of treatment for anovulation in infertile women has been clomiphene citrate (CC) [9].
  • CONTEXT: Metformin is successfully used in the treatment of cycle disorders and anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anovulation


Biological context of Anovulation


Anatomical context of Anovulation


Associations of Anovulation with chemical compounds

  • In a randomized cross-over study of 10 women with PCOD, GnRH (100 micrograms) was injected iv on the fifth day of 2 consecutive cycles, 1 of them following anovulation and progesterone withdrawal bleeding and the other following an induced ovulatory cycle [12].
  • Instead, a central and/or peripheral defect, resulting in overproduction of androgen, may also exist and lead to anovulation in OA women [26].
  • Testosterone, a follicular regulator: key to anovulation [27].
  • To determine whether increased GnRH-LH drive in HAA reflects altered sex steroid exposure caused by chronic anovulation or is an intrinsic hypothalamic attribute, we compared the pulsatile LH response to oral contraceptive (OC)-induced suppression in seven women with HAA, with that of seven eumenorrheic women (EW) [28].
  • Thus, similarly to obese PCOS women, nonobese PCOS subjects with anovulation may also benefit from metformin treatment [29].

Gene context of Anovulation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anovulation


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  2. Increased androgenic activity and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. Secreto, G., Toniolo, P., Berrino, F., Recchione, C., Di Pietro, S., Fariselli, G., Decarli, A. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  4. Naloxone increases the frequency of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in women with hyperprolactinemia. Cook, C.B., Nippoldt, T.B., Kletter, G.B., Kelch, R.P., Marshall, J.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Nutrition, insulin and polycystic ovary syndrome. Franks, S., Robinson, S., Willis, D.S. Rev. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Pulsatile administration of low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Ovulation and pregnancy in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. Miller, D.S., Reid, R.R., Cetel, N.S., Rebar, R.W., Yen, S.S. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the inappropriate gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome. Rebar, R., Judd, H.L., Yen, S.S., Rakoff, J., Vandenberg, G., Naftolin, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
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  10. Early effects of metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eisenhardt, S., Schwarzmann, N., Henschel, V., Germeyer, A., von Wolff, M., Hamann, A., Strowitzki, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of seizures and kindling on reproductive hormones in the rat. Edwards, H.E., MacLusky, N.J., Burnham, W.M. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Changing pituitary reactivity to follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone after induced ovulatory cycles and after anovulation in patients with polycystic ovarian disease. Blankstein, J., Rabinovici, J., Goldenberg, M., Shaley, J., Mehta, A., Serr, D.M., Mashiach, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  14. Prepubertal administration of estradiol valerate disrupts cyclicity and leads to cystic ovarian morphology during adult life in the rat: role of sympathetic innervation. Rosa-E-Silva, A., Guimaraes, M.A., Padmanabhan, V., Lara, H.E. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Postnatal developmental consequences of altered insulin sensitivity in female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone. Recabarren, S.E., Padmanabhan, V., Codner, E., Lobos, A., Durán, C., Vidal, M., Foster, D.L., Sir-Petermann, T. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Prospective parallel randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled clinical trial comparing clomiphene citrate and metformin as the first-line treatment for ovulation induction in nonobese anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Palomba, S., Orio, F., Falbo, A., Manguso, F., Russo, T., Cascella, T., Tolino, A., Carmina, E., Colao, A., Zullo, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Coronary heart disease risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Talbott, E., Guzick, D., Clerici, A., Berga, S., Detre, K., Weimer, K., Kuller, L. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during luteal-follicular transition. De Souza, M.J., Miller, B.E., Loucks, A.B., Luciano, A.A., Pescatello, L.S., Campbell, C.G., Lasley, B.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Low levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-activation inhibitors in serum and follicular fluid from normal controls and anovulatory patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome. Schipper, I., Rommerts, F.F., Ten Hacken, P.M., Fauser, B.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Preferential induction of c-fos immunoreactivity in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-innervated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during a steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat. van der Beek, E.M., van Oudheusden, H.J., Buijs, R.M., van der Donk, H.A., van den Hurk, R., Wiegant, V.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and anovulation increase serum inhibin and affect follicular function during administration of gonadotropins. Haning, R.V., Hua, J.J., Hackett, R.J., Wheeler, C.A., Frishman, G.N., Seifer, D.B., Dahl, C.A., Burger, H.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Influences of weight, body fat patterning and nutrition on the management of PCOS. Lefebvre, P., Bringer, J., Renard, E., Boulet, F., Clouet, S., Jaffiol, C. Hum. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) activity in lean women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome. Sampson, M., Kong, C., Patel, A., Unwin, R., Jacobs, H.S. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of prenatal testosterone propionate on the sexual development of male and female rats: a dose-response study. Wolf, C.J., Hotchkiss, A., Ostby, J.S., LeBlanc, G.A., Gray, L.E. Toxicol. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Morphological action of tamoxifen in the endometrium of persistent estrous rats. Patriarca, M.T., Simöes, R.D., Smaniotto, S., De Teves, D.C., Simöes, M.d.e. .D., Evêncio-Neto, J., De Freitas, V., De Lima, G.R. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Endocrine comparison of obese menstruating and amenorrheic women. Zhang, Y.W., Stern, B., Rebar, R.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Testosterone, a follicular regulator: key to anovulation. Haning, R.V., Hackett, R.J., Flood, C.A., Loughlin, J.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Longcope, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Resistance of gonadotropin releasing hormone drive to sex steroid-induced suppression in hyperandrogenic anovulation. Daniels, T.L., Berga, S.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Metformin versus ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in the treatment of nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study. Morin-Papunen, L., Vauhkonen, I., Koivunen, R., Ruokonen, A., Martikainen, H., Tapanainen, J.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Anovulation in cyclooxygenase-2-deficient mice is restored by prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1beta. Davis, B.J., Lennard, D.E., Lee, C.A., Tiano, H.F., Morham, S.G., Wetsel, W.C., Langenbach, R. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Prolactin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in women with infertility and/or randomly elevated serum prolactin levels. Archer, D.F. Fertil. Steril. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential expression of T-helper cytokines in the peritoneal fluid of women with normal ovarian cycle compared with women with chronic anovulation. Omu, A.E., Al-Azemi, M.K., Makhseed, M., Al-Oattan, F., Ismail, A.A., Al-Tahir, S., Al-Busiri, N. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2003) [Pubmed]
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