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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro drug allergy detection system incorporating human liver microsomes in chlorazepate-induced skin rash: drug-specific proliferation associated with interleukin-5 secretion.

BACKGROUND: Chlorazepate is a benzodiazepine often used for pre-operative anxiolysis. The central metabolite responsible for the pharmacological and probably for the adverse effects of most benzodiazepines, including chlorazepate, is N-desmethyldiazepam. We report a woman who developed a generalized exanthem 1 day after receiving chlorazepate and four other drugs related to anaesthesia for surgery of the larynx. Patch tests pointed to chlorazepate as the culprit drug for the skin rash. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to detect drug allergy to chlorazepate or a metabolite in vitro by means of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), and to determine the concentrations of the T-helper (Th) 2-type cytokine interleukin (IL)-5 and the Th1-type cytokine interferon (IFN) -gamma in the culture supernatants. METHODS: We performed an LTT with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patient and a control, employing human liver microsomes containing cytochrome P450 enzymes as a metabolizing system, in parallel cultures. IL-5 and IFN-gamma concentrations in the culture supernatants were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In the LTT, no T-cell reactivity was observed to the parent compound chlorazepate, whereas coincubation of the drug with human liver microsomes yielded proliferative T-cell reactivity, which was associated with secretion of IL-5 but not of IFN-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that addition of a metabolizing system may be advantageous for in vitro detection of T-cell reactivity to drug metabolites in the LTT.[1]


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