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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin ( Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms.

Glutaredoxin (Grx) is a glutathione-dependent hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reductase. Today glutaredoxins are known as a multifunctional family of GSH-disulfide-oxidoreductases belonging to the thioredoxin fold superfamily. In contrast to Escherichia coli and yeast, a single human glutaredoxin is known. We have identified and cloned a novel 18-kDa human dithiol glutaredoxin, named glutaredoxin-2 ( Grx2), which is 34% identical to the previously known cytosolic 12-kDa human Grx1. The human Grx2 sequence contains three characteristic regions of the glutaredoxin family: the dithiol/disulfide active site, CSYC, the GSH binding site, and a hydrophobic surface area. The human Grx2 gene, located at chromosome 1q31.2--31.3, consisted of five exons that were transcribed to a 0.9-kilobase human Grx2 mRNA ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. Two alternatively spliced Grx2 mRNA isoforms that differed in their 5' region were identified. These corresponded to alternative proteins with a common 125-residue C-terminal Grx domain but with different N-terminal extensions of 39 and 40 residues, respectively. The 125-residue Grx domain and the two full-length variants were expressed in E. coli and exhibited GSH-dependent hydroxyethyl disulfide and dehydroascorbate reducing activities. Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions from Jurkat cells with a specific anti- Grx2 antibody showed that human Grx2 was predominantly located in the nucleus but also present in the mitochondria. We further showed that one of the mRNA isoforms corresponding to Grx2a encoded a functional N-terminal mitochondrial translocation signal.[1]


  1. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. Lundberg, M., Johansson, C., Chandra, J., Enoksson, M., Jacobsson, G., Ljung, J., Johansson, M., Holmgren, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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