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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human kidney diamine oxidase: heterologous expression, purification, and characterization.

Human kidney diamine oxidase has been overexpressed as a secreted enzyme under the control of a metallothionein promoter in Drosophila S2 cell culture. This represents the first heterologous overexpression and purification of a catalytically active, recombinant mammalian copper-containing amine oxidase. A rapid and highly efficient purification protocol using chromatography on heparin affinity, hydroxyapatite, and gel filtration media allows for the recovery of large quantities of the recombinant enzyme, which is judged to be greater than 98% homogenous by SDS/PAGE. The availability of large quantities of highly purified enzyme makes it now possible to investigate the spectroscopic, mechanistic, functional, and structural properties of this human enzyme at the molecular level. Visible absorption, circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman spectroscopic results are presented. The recombinant enzyme contains the cofactors 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalaninequinone and copper at stoichiometries of up to 1.1 and 1.5 mol per mol homodimer, respectively. In addition, tightly bound and stoichiometric calcium ions were identified and proposed to occupy a second metal-binding site. The apparent molecular weight of the recombinant protein, determined by analytical ultracentrifugation, suggests 20-26% glycosylation by weight. Detailed kinetic studies indicate the preferred substrates (k(cat)/K(M)) of human diamine oxidase are, in order, histamine, 1-methylhistamine, and putrescine, with K(M) values of 2.8, 3.4, and 20 microM, respectively. These results, demonstrating the substrate preference for histamine and 1-methylhistamine, were unanticipated given the available literature. The pH dependence of k(cat) for putrescine oxidation gives two apparent p K(a) values at 6.0 and 8. 2. Tissue-specific expression of the human diamine oxidase gene was investigated using an mRNA array. The relevance of this work to earlier work and the suggested physiological roles of the human enzyme are discussed.[1]


  1. Human kidney diamine oxidase: heterologous expression, purification, and characterization. Elmore, B.O., Bollinger, J.A., Dooley, D.M. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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