The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Effect of first part of duodenum on gastric emptying in dogs: response to acid, fat, glucose, and neural blockade.

Five dogs were prepared, each with a gastric and duodenal fistula (5 cm distal to the pylorus), to study the inhibitory role of the first 5 cm of the duodenum on gastric emptying. The basic design of the experiments was to instill the test meal (300 ml at 37 degrees C, containing phenol red 40 mg 1(-1)) into the stomach and collect it at 1- or 2-min intervals for 10 or 20 min from the duodenal fistula. As the test meal emptied from the stomach it bathed the first 5 cm of duodenum and thus stimulated the appropriate receptor. A Foley catheter with an inflated balloon prevented passage into the second part of the duodenum. Test meals of hypertonic glucose (15%, 865 milliosmoles kg-1) or 20 and 80 mM of sodium oleate emptied at the same rate as water when allowed to bathe the first 5 cm of duodenum, whereas test meals of 100 mM of HCl were slowed. In further studies using neural blocking agents, the emptying of water meals was slowed with subcutaneous atropine sulfate (0.03 and 0.15 mg kg-1), intravenous hexamethonium chloride (10 mg kg-1), and norepinephrine bitartrate (0.04 mg kg-1). The emptying of 100 to 120 mM HCl meals was slowed by subcutaneous atropine sulfate (0.03 and 0.15 mg kg-1), intravenous norepinephrine bitartrate (0.04 mg kg-1), and the intravenous alpha-receptor blocking agents phenoxybenzamine HCl (2 mg kg-1) and phentolamine (2 mg kg-1), was unaffected by intravenous hexamethonium chloide (10 mg kg-1), and was unchanged (1.0 mg kg-1) or slightly slowed (2.0 mg kg-1) by the beta-receptor blocker propranolol. In contrast, acid test meals were emptied at the same rate as water when treated with intravenous guanethidine monosulfate (2 mg kg-1) or intramuscular reserpine (1 mg kg-1), indicating that the acid inhibition was mediated by an adrenergic mechanism. The emptying of water meals was unchanged by these two drugs. The authors suggest that the first 5 cm of duodenum contain receptors for inhibition of emptying of acid but not for fat or hypertonic glucose. Furthermore, the neural blocking studies indicate that the inhibitory effect of acid in the first part of the duodenum is an adrenergic mechanism which appears to be neither alpha nor beta-receptor-mediated.[1]

References

 
WikiGenes - Universities