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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pylorus


Psychiatry related information on Pylorus

  • Therefore, histamine and CCK do not appear to play a significant role in the vagally mediated inhibition-relaxation response of the canine pylorus or in the atropine-resistant spontaneous pyloric motor activity [6].

High impact information on Pylorus

  • Mechanism of histamine-induced excitation of the cat pylorus [7].
  • METHODS: NSCs were isolated from embryonic mice transgenically engineered to express green fluorescent protein and transplanted into the pylorus of nNOS-/- mice [8].
  • RESULTS: Fasted M(3) KO mice exhibited higher intragastric pH, lower acid output after pylorus ligation, a lower proportion of active parietal cells, and higher serum gastrin levels than fasted wild-type mice [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abnormalities in the ileal movement and pyloric sphincter function in Ws/Ws rats were attributable to the deficiency of c-kit messenger RNA-expressing cells [10].
  • Rats underwent pylorus ligation and received intracisternal injection of apo A-IV under brief isoflurane anesthesia [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Pylorus


Biological context of Pylorus


Anatomical context of Pylorus

  • Intravenous histamine causes high amplitude repetitive phasic contractions of the in vivo cat pylorus but has little effect on the antrum and duodenum [7].
  • Gastric acid output measured in conscious rats 2 hours after pylorus ligation was not modified by intracisternal injection of RX 77368 at 1.5 ng but was significantly increased by 54% at the 3-ng dose [22].
  • Fibers immunoreactive for enkephalin or substance P, or both, were sparse in the esophagus, increased in numbers to reach maximal frequency in the pylorus, and maintained a similar frequency in the small and large intestines [23].
  • The effects of electrical or chemical (0.1 M dl-homocysteic acid) stimulation of the hypothalamus on pancreatic exocrine secretion were studied in chloralose-anesthetized and hemispherectomized dogs whose pyloric sphincter had been ligated [24].
  • In the gastric antrum and pylorus, an extremely strong hSP mRNA signal was present within pyloric-type glands; strong hSP immunostaining was also seen at this site and in mucous-neck cells [25].

Associations of Pylorus with chemical compounds

  • To test this hypothesis, 2 ml of 100% ethanol containing tracer amounts of 14C at carbon 1 was given orally to rats, after ligating the pylorus [26].
  • That study used pylorus occlusion, intravenous atropine, and exogenous acid, and thus may not have mimicked the usual clinical situation [27].
  • A polyvinyl chloride tube passing through a ligated pylorus was used for duodenal pulse instillations of 1 mL of saline or acid (100 or 400 mumols HCl) at 30-minute intervals [28].
  • The total number of antral contractions was not affected, but the contractions could be recorded manometrically higher up in the stomach after erythromycin than after placebo (9-12 vs. 3-6 cm above the pylorus) [29].
  • The atropine- and guanethidine-resistant contraction of the cat pyloric sphincter induced by efferent stimulation of the cervical vagi, was studied with a new method for measuring transpyloric flow [30].

Gene context of Pylorus

  • Our results suggest that SOX9 is necessary and sufficient to specify the pyloric sphincter epithelial properties [31].
  • We showed that the distal stomach containing the pylorus determined CCK gastric activity, whereas both the proximal and distal stomach are important for leptin's effect [32].
  • In addition, decreased nNOS mRNA and protein were observed in the antrum pylorus of endotoxin-treated rats [21].
  • Transgenic mouse lines generated from this modified BAC clone closely resembled the endogenous Nkx2-5 expression in the heart, pylorus sphincter, and spleen, but expression was not detected in the tongue [33].
  • Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in patients with early gastric cancer in the gastric pylorus [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pylorus


  1. Reversibility of pyloric sphincter dysfunction in gastric ulcer. Fisher, R.S., Boden, G. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of glyoxal and methylglyoxal administration on gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Takahashi, M., Okamiya, H., Furukawa, F., Toyoda, K., Sato, H., Imaida, K., Hayashi, Y. Carcinogenesis (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide inhibits acid secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. Ootsubo, C., Okumura, T., Takahashi, N., Wakebe, H., Imagawa, K., Kikuchi, M., Kohgo, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. DNA methylation in the digestive tract of F344 rats during chronic exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Ohgaki, H., Ludeke, B.I., Meier, I., Kleihues, P., Lutz, W.K., Schlatter, C. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of elcatonin on experimental gastric and duodenal ulcers. Ohno, H., Noguchi, M., Takayanagi, N. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Neural control of the canine pylorus. Telford, G.L., Mir, S.S., Mason, G.R., Ormsbee, H.S. Am. J. Surg. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanism of histamine-induced excitation of the cat pylorus. Biancani, P., CiCalzi, L.K., McCallum, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Neural stem cell transplantation in the stomach rescues gastric function in neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. Micci, M.A., Kahrig, K.M., Simmons, R.S., Sarna, S.K., Espejo-Navarro, M.R., Pasricha, P.J. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Impaired gastric secretion and lack of trophic responses to hypergastrinemia in M3 muscarinic receptor knockout mice. Aihara, T., Fujishita, T., Kanatani, K., Furutani, K., Nakamura, E., Taketo, M.M., Matsui, M., Chen, D., Okabe, S. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Disturbed intestinal movement, bile reflux to the stomach, and deficiency of c-kit-expressing cells in Ws/Ws mutant rats. Isozaki, K., Hirota, S., Nakama, A., Miyagawa, J., Shinomura, Y., Xu, Z., Nomura, S., Kitamura, Y. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Intracisternal injection of apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. Okumura, T., Fukagawa, K., Tso, P., Taylor, I.L., Pappas, T.N. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Evaluation of the effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers. Patel, H.M., Santani, D.D., Goswami, S.G. Pharmacology (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of sodium polyacrylate (PANa) on acute esophagitis by gastric juice in rats. Nakamura, K., Ozawa, Y., Furuta, Y., Miyazaki, H. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Interferon-inducer polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid: a potent anti-gastric ulcer agent and inhibitor of the gastric proton pump in rats. Nath, C., Rastogi, L., Dikshit, M., Patnaik, G.K., Saxena, R.C., Gupta, M.B. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. al-Yahya, M.A., Rafatullah, S., Mossa, J.S., Ageel, A.M., Parmar, N.S., Tariq, M. Am. J. Chin. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Isoproterenol induced pancreatic secretion in rats. A comparison with secretin. Rozé, C., de la Tour, J., Chariot, J., Souchard, M., Vaille, C., Dupont, C., Jean, E., Wepierre, J. Biomedicine / [publiée pour l'A.A.I.C.I.G.]. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of the gastric emptying of glucose. Brener, W., Hendrix, T.R., McHugh, P.R. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Antroduodenal motility studied by real-time ultrasonography. Effect of enprostil. Hausken, T., Odegaard, S., Berstad, A. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Gastric stasis in neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient knockout mice. Mashimo, H., Kjellin, A., Goyal, R.K. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Roles of BMP signaling and Nkx2.5 in patterning at the chick midgut-foregut boundary. Smith, D.M., Nielsen, C., Tabin, C.J., Roberts, D.J. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Downregulation of nNOS and synthesis of PGs associated with endotoxin-induced delay in gastric emptying. Calatayud, S., García-Zaragozá, E., Hernández, C., Quintana, E., Felipo, V., Esplugues, J.V., Barrachina, M.D. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Central thyrotropin-releasing factor analog prevents ethanol-induced gastric damage through prostaglandins in rats. Yoneda, M., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution and coexistence of peptides in nerve fibers of the external muscle of the human gastrointestinal tract. Wattchow, D.A., Furness, J.B., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of stimulation of the hypothalamic area on pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs. Furukawa, N., Okada, H. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Spasmolytic polypeptide is a major antral peptide: distribution of the trefoil peptides human spasmolytic polypeptide and pS2 in the stomach. Hanby, A.M., Poulsom, R., Singh, S., Elia, G., Jeffery, R.E., Wright, N.A. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Cytoprotection by prostaglandin occurs in spite of penetration of absolute ethanol into the gastric mucosa. Robert, A., Lancaster, C., Davis, J.P., Field, S.O., Sinha, A.J., Thornburgh, B.A. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of aspirin and an aspirin-acetaminophen combination on the gastric mucosa in normal subjects. A double-blind endoscopic study. Graham, D.Y., Smith, J.L. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Duodenal mucosal resistance to intraluminal acid in the rat: role of adaptive cytoprotection. Lugea, A., Salas, A., Guarner, F., Azpiroz, F., Malagelada, J.R. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Erythromycin accelerates gastric emptying by inducing antral contractions and improved gastroduodenal coordination. Annese, V., Janssens, J., Vantrappen, G., Tack, J., Peeters, T.L., Willemse, P., Van Cutsem, E. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence for vagal enkephalinergic neural control of the feline pylorus and stomach. Edin, R., Lundberg, J., Terenius, L., Dahlström, A., Hökfelt, T., Kewenter, J., Ahlman, H. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. SOX9 specifies the pyloric sphincter epithelium through mesenchymal-epithelial signals. Moniot, B., Biau, S., Faure, S., Nielsen, C.M., Berta, P., Roberts, D.J., de Santa Barbara, P. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Gastric effects of cholecystokinin and its interaction with leptin on brainstem neuronal activity in neonatal rats. Yuan, C.S., Attele, A.S., Dey, L., Xie, J.T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of Nkx2-5-GFP bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice closely resembles endogenous Nkx2-5 gene activity. Chi, X., Zhang, S.X., Yu, W., DeMayo, F.J., Rosenberg, S.M., Schwartz, R.J. Genesis (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in patients with early gastric cancer in the gastric pylorus. Yasuda, H., Yamada, M., Endo, Y., Inoue, K., Yoshiba, M. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification in rat stomach mucosae of a cell population characterized by a deficiency for the repair of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine from DNA. Zaidi, N.H., O'Connor, P.J. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Injurious effect of Helicobacter pylori culture fluid to gastroduodenal mucosa, and its detoxification by sucralfate in the rat. Watanabe, K., Joh, T., Seno, K., Takahashi, N., Ohara, H., Nomura, T., Tochikubo, K., Itoh, M. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. R-alpha-methylhistamine-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats via central histamine H3 receptors. Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Chiavarini, M., Impicciatore, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Stress-induced changes in the function of the parasympathetic nervous system are mimicked by blocking GABA in the CNS of the cat. Pagani, F.D., DiMicco, J.A., Hamilton, B.L., Souza, J.D., Schmidt, B., Gillis, R.A. Neuropharmacology (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Prostaglandin-stimulated recovery of the human duodenal epithelium: effects of misoprostol on ethanol damage. Foschi, D., Marazzi, M., Toti, G.L., Radaelli, E., Ferrante, F., Vaiani, G., Galeone, M., Trabucchi, E. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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