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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Fistula

  • Homozygous Shh-null mutant mice show oesophageal atresia/stenosis, tracheo-oesophageal fistula and tracheal and lung anomalies, features similar to those observed in humans with foregut defects [1].
  • The administration of Sn-protoporphyrin (10-50 mumol/kg body weight) was followed by prompt (within approximately 1 h) and sustained (up to at least 18 h) decreases in bilirubin output, to levels 25-30 percent below the levels of bilirubin output in control bile fistula animals [2].
  • We have examined the temporal relationship between the expression of mRNA transcripts for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and their receptors in the heart during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in the aortovenocaval fistula rat [3].
  • The incorporation of [3H]7 alpha- hydroxycholesterol into bile acids in the cirrhotic bile fistula patient was efficient (75%) and equal to bile fistula patients with no cirrhosis (76%); chenodeoxycholic acid synthesis was favored over cholic acid particularly in the cirrhotic patient [4].
  • Hydrogen peroxide enhanced ultrasound- fistulography in the assessment of enterocutaneous fistulas complicating Crohn's disease [5].

High impact information on Fistula

  • The drug was more effective than placebo in closing fistulas (31 vs 6%) and in permitting discontinuation or reduction of steroid dosage (75 vs. 36%) (P less than 0.001) [6].
  • High- and low-density lipoproteins carrying free cholesterol labeled with 3H or 14C were administered to a patient with a bile fistula [7].
  • Alveolar proteinosis. Lavage in the presence of bronchopleural fistula [8].
  • PACAP effects on acid secretion were determined in fistula rats with or without neutralizing anti-somatostatin antibodies [9].
  • In this study, we have developed an in vivo bile and lymph fistula rat model to test the hypothesis that biliary GSH is an important luminal source of GSH [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fistula

  • No changes in basal acid secretion or responsiveness of parietal cells to submaximal doses of pentagastrin occurred in the fistula or pouch during chronic sham feeding [11].
  • Deconjugation of bilirubin glucuronides was evaluated directly by infusion of bilirubin monoglucuronides, containing 14C in the glucuronosyl group, into rats with an external bile fistula [12].
  • In the chronic bile fistula rat, colestipol increased bile salt synthesis by 100% while diosgenin and fructose diets had no effect [13].
  • In group 2 mean fistula output was reduced from 698 ml per 24 h pretreatment to 246 mg per 24 h after 2 days on octreotide; output increased from 228 ml per 24 h to 497 ml per 24 h when treatment with octreotide was interrupted by placebo [14].
  • Treatment of fistula by parenteral nutrition [15].

Biological context of Fistula


Anatomical context of Fistula


Gene context of Fistula

  • Certain nonmalignant diseases of the gut respond to somatostatin, including secretory diarrhea and fistulas of unknown cause [26].
  • CONCLUSION: MMP-3 and MMP-9 are markedly upregulated in intestinal fistulae and may contribute to fistula formation through degradation of the extracellular matrix, irrespective of the underlying disease process [27].
  • There was no significant difference in [125I]-ET-1 binding between atrial samples from 35 d control and 35 d AV fistula rats, suggesting rapid turnover of endothelin receptors balanced by increased transcription from the ETAR gene [28].
  • METHODS: Male homozygous ANP deficient (Nppa(-/-)) and wildtype (Nppa(+/+)) male mice maintained on either a normal salt (0.55% NaCl) or low salt (0.05% NaCl) diet from weaning were studied after 2 weeks of volume overload from an aorto-caval fistula (ACF) [29].
  • As fistulising CD has been proposed as a separate subgroup of patients with CD, we studied the carrier frequencies (CF) of the DRB1 alleles in 35 unrelated Caucasian Dutch CD patients with proven peri-anal fistulas [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fistula


  1. Sonic hedgehog is essential to foregut development. Litingtung, Y., Lei, L., Westphal, H., Chiang, C. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Studies on the mechanism of Sn-protoporphyrin suppression of hyperbilirubinemia. Inhibition of heme oxidation and bilirubin production. Simionatto, C.S., Anderson, K.E., Drummond, G.S., Kappas, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential regulation of natriuretic peptide receptor messenger RNAs during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in the rat. Brown, L.A., Nunez, D.J., Wilkins, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Bile acid metabolism in cirrhosis. VII. Evidence for defective feedback control of bile acid synthesis. Vlahcevic, Z.R., Goldman, M., Schwartz, C.C., Gustafsson, J., Swell, L. Hepatology (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced ultrasound- fistulography in the assessment of enterocutaneous fistulas complicating Crohn's disease. Maconi, G., Parente, F., Porro, G.B. Gut (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Treatment of Crohn's disease with 6-mercaptopurine. A long-term, randomized, double-blind study. Present, D.H., Korelitz, B.I., Wisch, N., Glass, J.L., Sachar, D.B., Pasternack, B.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Preferential utilization of free cholesterol from high-density lipoproteins for biliary cholesterol secretion in man. Schwartz, C.C., Halloran, L.G., Vlahcevic, Z.R., Gregory, D.H., Swell, L. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Alveolar proteinosis. Lavage in the presence of bronchopleural fistula. Jenkins, D.W., Teichner, R.L., Griggs, G.W., Byrd, R.B. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. PACAP type I receptor activation regulates ECL cells and gastric acid secretion. Zeng, N., Athmann, C., Kang, T., Lyu, R.M., Walsh, J.H., Ohning, G.V., Sachs, G., Pisegna, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Biliary glutathione promotes the mucosal metabolism of luminal peroxidized lipids by rat small intestine in vivo. Aw, T.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of chronic sham feeding on maximal gastric acid secretion in the dog. Thirlby, R.C., Feldman, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Bilirubin kinetics in intact rats and isolated perfused liver. Evidence for hepatic deconjugation of bilirubin glucuronides. Gollan, J., Hammaker, L., Licko, V., Schmid, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion. Functional relationship between the canalicular and sinusoidal cholesterol secretory pathways in the rat. Nervi, F., Marinović, I., Rigotti, A., Ulloa, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Blind evaluation of the effect of octreotide (SMS 201-995), a somatostatin analogue, on small-bowel fistula output. Nubiola-Calonge, P., Badía, J.M., Sancho, J., Gil, M.J., Segura, M., Sitges-Serra, A. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Treatment of fistula by parenteral nutrition. Allan, R. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Cholesterol kinetics in subjects with bile fistula. Positive relationship between size of the bile acid precursor pool and bile acid synthetic rate. Schwartz, C.C., Zech, L.A., VandenBroek, J.M., Cooper, P.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Gastric emptying of solid food is most potently inhibited by carbohydrate in the canine distal ileum. Lin, H.C., Kim, B.H., Elashoff, J.D., Doty, J.E., Gu, Y.G., Meyer, J.H. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential effects of diltiazem and nitroprusside on left ventricular function in experimental chronic volume overload. Porter, C.B., Walsh, R.A., Badke, F.R., O'Rourke, R.A. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of early cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver: effects of sterols, bile acids, lovastatin, and BM 15.766 on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase and acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase activities. Honda, A., Salen, G., Nguyen, L.B., Xu, G., Tint, G.S., Batta, A.K., Shefer, S. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling. Mo, R., Kim, J.H., Zhang, J., Chiang, C., Hui, C.C., Kim, P.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of omeprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, on gastrointestinal secretions, serum gastrin, and gastric mucosal blood flow in dogs. Konturek, S.J., Cieszkowski, M., Kwiecień, N., Konturek, J., Tasler, J., Bilski, J. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Corticosteroids modulate the secretory processes of the rat intrahepatic biliary epithelium. Alvaro, D., Gigliozzi, A., Marucci, L., Alpini, G., Barbaro, B., Monterubbianesi, R., Minetola, L., Mancino, M.G., Medina, J.F., Attili, A.F., Benedetti, A. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistulas. Perry, S.B., Rome, J., Keane, J.F., Baim, D.S., Lock, J.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of 27 postoperative enterocutaneous fistulas with the long half-life somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995. Nubiola, P., Badia, J.M., Martinez-Rodenas, F., Gil, M.J., Segura, M., Sancho, J., Sitges-Serra, A. Ann. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Balanced t(6;8)(6p8p;6q8q) and the CHARGE association. Hurst, J.A., Meinecke, P., Baraitser, M. J. Med. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. NIH conference. Somatostatin and somatostatin analogue (SMS 201-995) in treatment of hormone-secreting tumors of the pituitary and gastrointestinal tract and non-neoplastic diseases of the gut. Gorden, P., Comi, R.J., Maton, P.N., Go, V.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression and localisation of matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors in fistulae of patients with Crohn's disease. Kirkegaard, T., Hansen, A., Bruun, E., Brynskov, J. Gut (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective increase in endothelin-1 and endothelin A receptor subtype in the hypertrophied myocardium of the aorto-venacaval fistula rat. Brown, L.A., Nunez, D.J., Brookes, C.I., Wilkins, M.R. Cardiovasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Volume overload results in exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy in the atrial natriuretic peptide knockout mouse. Mori, T., Chen, Y.F., Feng, J.A., Hayashi, T., Oparil, S., Perry, G.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. HLA-DRB1*03, but not the TNFA -308 promoter gene polymorphism, confers protection against fistulising Crohn's disease. Bouma, G., Poen, A.C., García-González, M.A., Schreuder, G.M., Felt-Bersma, R.J., Meuwissen, S.G., Pena, A.S. Immunogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Hemodialysis fistula infections caused by Legionella pneumophila. Kalweit, W.H., Winn, W.C., Rocco, T.A., Girod, J.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Long-term outcome of surgical repair of ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. van Son, J.A., Danielson, G.K., Schaff, H.V., Orszulak, T.A., Edwards, W.D., Seward, J.B. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Taurohyodeoxycholic acid protects against taurochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cholestasis in the rat. Roda, A., Piazza, F., Baraldini, M., Speroni, E., Guerra, M.C., Cerré, C., Cantelli Forti, G. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Gastric fistula following splenectomy: its cause and prevention. Harrison, B.J., Glanges, E., Sparkman, R.S. Ann. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Serum transferrin as a prognostic indicator of spontaneous closure and mortality in gastrointestinal cutaneous fistulas. Kuvshinoff, B.W., Brodish, R.J., McFadden, D.W., Fischer, J.E. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
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